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Panduan Diplomat British untuk Balkan Races

Panduan Diplomat British untuk Balkan Races


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Dilaporkan (dari sumber yang saya tidak ingat) Inggeris mempunyai panduan yang sangat "menarik" tentang Balkan.

Ini memiliki semacam cheat sheet untuk orang-orang di sekitar daerah itu, dengan penampilan stereotaip, pandangan politik, dan hubungan dengan orang lain di Balkan.

Saya melihat petikan ini, tetapi tidak pernah berjaya mendapatkan salinan manual pelik ini. Adakah ada yang mengetahui lebih banyak perincian mengenainya?


Saya pada mulanya menyebut teks ini dalam komen mengenai soalan tersebut. Walaupun nampaknya ini bukan teks khusus yang dicari oleh OP, saya juga menyiarkannya sebagai jawapan kerana teks tersebut mengandungi banyak ciri panduan itu dan yang lain mungkin menganggapnya sebagai sumber yang berguna.

Lebih jauh lagi, seperti yang diamati oleh Pieter Geerkens dalam komen di atas, komen itu tidak penting!


Walaupun itu sama sekali tidak rasmi panduan untuk diplomat Britain, The Races, Agama dan Institusi Turki dan Negara-negara Jiran oleh ahli politik Parti Liberal Skotlandia, Sir George Campbell Ahli Parlimen, yang diterbitkan oleh kumpulan tekanan The Eastern Question Association pada akhir abad kesembilan belas, pastinya nampaknya memiliki banyak ciri-ciri dokumen yang anda terangkan.

Pamflet itu menggambarkan aspek penampilan stereotaip orang Balkan, pandangan politik mereka, dan membuat beberapa komen dangkal mengenai hubungan dengan orang lain di rantau ini, tetapi tidak mempunyai jadual yang menunjukkan pelbagai bangsa, dan ciri fizikal mereka yang anda terangkan dalam komen.


Panduan yang anda nyatakan baru-baru ini ditunjukkan pada episod pertama program Saluran Sejarah yang disebut "Perang Dunia Pertama". Sebagai Slav, dokumen yang dipersoalkan juga menarik minat saya. Saya harap anda mengesannya. Program ini mesti dibuat sekitar tahun 2010-13, ketika pencerita menyinggung ulang tahun perang ke-100 sebagai sudah dekat.


Sumber Utama Bersejarah: Afrika: Sumber Utama mengikut Wilayah

Panduan ini menggunakan skim geografi Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu untuk Afrika untuk mengatur sumber ke dalam kategori wilayah.

Afrika Utara: Algeria, Mesir, Libya, Maghribi, Sudan, Tunisia, Sahara Barat

Afrika Timur: Burundi, Komoro, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mozambique, R & eacuteunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Sudan Selatan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Afrika Barat: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, C & ocircte d & # 39Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

Afrika Tengah: Angola, Kamerun, Republik Afrika Tengah, Chad, Republik Demokratik Kongo, Republik Kongo, Guinea Khatulistiwa, Gabon, S & atildeo Tom & eacute dan Pr & iacutencipe

Afrika Selatan: Botswana, Eswatini (Swaziland), Lesotho, Namibia, Afrika Selatan


Arkib Sejarah Lisan Ambleside

Ambleside Oral History Group telah melakukan wawancara sejarah lisan sejak tahun 1976 mengenai pelbagai perkara yang berkaitan dengan kehidupan di kawasan Ambleside dan Lake District. Mereka menyimpan arsip yang berkembang, saat ini berjumlah lebih dari 450 wawancara. Transkrip wawancara untuk keseluruhan arkib boleh didapati dalam talian dan boleh dicari sepenuhnya berdasarkan kata kunci, atau boleh dilayari mengikut topik. Akses ke transkrip dalam talian dan kemudahan carian mesti diminta menggunakan halaman pendaftaran di laman web. Rakaman audio itu sendiri tidak tersedia dalam talian dan hanya dapat diakses dengan janji temu terlebih dahulu di Perpustakaan Awam Ambleside.

Kata kunci: pendidikan masyarakat kanak-kanak pertanian masa lapang WWI WWII


Samacheer Kalvi Ilmu Sosial ke-10 Pecah Perang Dunia I dan Buku Teksnya Selepas Tanya Soalan dan Jawapan

I. Pilih jawapan yang betul

Soalan 1.
Apakah tiga empayar utama yang hancur pada akhir Perang Dunia Pertama?
(a) Jerman, Austria Hungary, dan Uthmaniyyah
(b) Jerman, Austria-Hungary, dan Rusia
(c) Sepanyol, Portugal dan Itali
(d) Jerman, Austria-Hungary, Itali
Jawapan:
(a) Jerman, Austria Hungary, dan Uthmaniyyah

Soalan 2.
Di mana tentera Ethiopia mengalahkan tentera Itali?
(a) Delville
(b) Negeri Jingga
(c) Adowa
(d) Aljir
Jawapan:
(c) Adowa

Soalan 3.
Negara manakah yang muncul sebagai negara terkuat di Asia Timur menjelang akhir abad kesembilan belas?
(a) China
(b) Jepun
(c) Korea
(d) Mongolia
Jawapan:
(b) Jepun

Soalan 4.
Siapa kata "imperialisme adalah tahap kapitalisme tertinggi"?
(a) Lenin
(b) Marx
(c) Sun Yat-sen
(d) Mao Tsetung
Jawapan:
(a) Lenin

Soalan 5.
Apa yang diingati oleh Pertempuran Marne?
(a) peperangan udara
(b) perang parit
(c) peperangan kapal selam
(d) peperangan kapal
Jawapan:
(b) perang parit

Soalan 6.
Negara manakah selepas Perang Dunia I yang mengambil kebijakan pengasingan?
(a) Britain
(b) Perancis
(c) Jerman
(d) Amerika Syarikat
Jawapan:
(a) Britain

Soalan 7.
Di negara mana Ketua Setiausaha Liga Bangsa-bangsa pertama?
(a) Britain
(b) Perancis
(c) Belanda
(d) Amerika Syarikat
Jawapan:
(a) Britain

Soalan 8.
Negara mana yang diusir dari Liga Bangsa kerana menyerang Finland?
(a) Jerman
(b) Rusia
(c) Itali
(d) Perancis
Jawapan:
(b) Rusia

  1. Jepun memaksa perang ke atas China pada tahun & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230.
  2. Negara baru Albania diciptakan mengikut Perjanjian & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230. ditandatangani pada Mei 1913.
  3. Jepun mengadakan persekutuan dengan England pada tahun & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230.
  4. Di Balkan & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230. mempunyai populasi campuran.
  5. Dalam pertempuran Tannenberg & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230. mengalami kerugian yang berat.
  6. & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230. sebagai Perdana Menteri mewakili Perancis dalam Persidangan Damai Paris.
  7. & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230. menjadi Perdana Menteri yang mengetuai gabungan baru liberal dan Sosialis moderat sebelum Lenin menubuhkan kerajaan Bolshevik.
  8. Perjanjian Locarno ditandatangani pada tahun & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230.
  1. 1894
  2. London
  3. 1902
  4. Macedonia
  5. Rusia
  6. Clemenceau
  7. Kerensky
  8. 1925

III. Pilih pernyataan yang betul

Soalan 1.
(i) Itali kekal sebagai negara berkecuali ketika Perang Dunia meletus.
(ii) Itali sangat kecewa dengan penyelesaian damai di Versailles.
(iii) Perjanjian Sevres ditandatangani dengan Itali.
(iv) Itali ditolak walaupun tempat-tempat kecil seperti Trieste, Istria dan selatan Tirol.
(a) (i) dan (ii) betul
(b) (iii) betul
(c) (iv) betul
(d) (i), (iii) dan (iv) betul
Jawapan:
(a) (i) dan (ii) betul

Soalan 2.
(i) Kerajaan Turki mengandungi banyak orang bukan Turki di Balkan.
(ii) Turki berperang di pihak kuasa pusat
(iii) Britain menyerang Turki dan menawan Constantinople
(iv) Turki cuba menyerang Terusan Suez tetapi ditangkis.
(a) (i) dan (ii) betul
(b) (i) dan (Hi) betul
(c) (iv) betul
(d) (i), (ii) dan (iv) betul
Jawapan:
(d) (i), (ii) dan (iv) betul

Soalan 3.
Penegasan (A): Jerman dan Amerika Syarikat menghasilkan barang perkilangan yang lebih murah dan menawan pasaran England & # 8217.
Sebab (R): Kedua-dua negara menghasilkan bahan mentah yang diperlukan untuk industri mereka.
(a) Kedua-dua A dan R betul
(b) A betul tetapi R bukan alasan yang betul
(c) Kedua-dua A dan R salah
(d) R betul tetapi tidak ada kaitan dengan A.
Jawapan:
(b) A betul tetapi R bukan alasan yang betul

Soalan 4.
Penegasan (A): Percubaan Eropah pertama untuk mengukir jajahan di Afrika mengakibatkan pertempuran berdarah.
Sebab (R): Terdapat tentangan keras dari penduduk asli.
(a) Kedua-dua A dan R betul
(b) A betul tetapi R bukan alasan yang betul
(c) Kedua-dua A dan R salah
(d) R betul tetapi tidak ada kaitan dengan A.
Jawapan:
(a) Kedua-dua A dan R betul

IV. Padankan yang berikut

Jawapan:
A. (iii)
B. (iv)
C. (ii)
D. (v)
E. (i)

Soalan 1.
Bagaimana anda menilai kepentingan Perang China-Jepun?
Jawapan:
Perang China-Jepun berlaku pada tahun 1894 & # 8211 1895. China dikalahkan dalam perang. Jepun mencaplok semenanjung Liaotung dengan Port Arthur walaupun terdapat peringatan yang diberikan oleh tiga kuasa besar, Rusia, Jerman dan Perancis. Dengan ini Jepun telah membuktikan bahawa ia adalah negara terkuat di Asia Timur & # 8211.

Soalan 2.
Namakan negara-negara dalam Triple Entente.
Jawapan:
Britain, Perancis dan Rusia.

Soalan 3.
Apakah tiga bentuk nasionalisme militan di Eropah?
Jawapan:
Tiga bentuk nasionalisme militan adalah, Jingoisme Inggeris, Chauvinisme Perancis dan Kultur Jerman.

Soalan 4.
Apa yang anda tahu mengenai perang parit?
Jawapan:
Perang parit adalah sejenis peperangan darat yang menggunakan garis pertempuran yang diduduki yang sebahagian besarnya terdiri dari parit tentera, di mana tentera dilindungi dengan baik dari tembakan senjata kecil musuh dan pada dasarnya dilindungi dari artileri. Ini adalah peperangan di mana pasukan lawan menyerang, menyerang balik, dan mempertahankan dari sistem parit yang relatif tetap digali di tanah.

Soalan 5.
Apa peranan Mustafa Kemal Pasha?
Jawapan:
Ketika orang Britain menyerang Turki secara langsung dan cuba menawan Constantinople, orang Turki bertempur dengan berani dan Mustafa Kemal Pasha memainkan peranan yang besar untuk memenangkan kebebasan untuk negara ini. Dia mengakhiri kesultanan dan kekhalifahan. Dia memodenkannya dan mengubahnya untuk pengiktirafan.

Soalan 6.
Sorot pengaruh global Revolusi Rusia?
Jawapan:
Revolusi Rusia melancarkan imajinasi orang di seluruh dunia. Di banyak negara, parti komunis dibentuk. Pemerintah komunis Rusia mendorong koloni untuk memperjuangkan kebebasan mereka dan memberikan semua sokongan kepada mereka. Perbahasan mengenai isu-isu utama, pembaharuan tanah, kesejahteraan sosial, hak pekerja, dan kesetaraan gender berlaku dalam konteks global.

Soalan 7.
Senaraikan dua sebab kegagalan Liga Bangsa-Bangsa.
Jawapan:
Liga tidak memiliki kekuatan ketenteraan sendiri, tidak dapat menguatkuasakan keputusannya. Walaupun, ia mempunyai keahlian di seluruh dunia, menjadi pusat diplomasi Eropah.

VI. Jawab semua soalan yang diberikan di bawah setiap kapsyen

Soalan 1.
Imperialisme
(a) Apa yang anda tahu mengenai kapitalisme monopoli?
(b) Bagaimana Jepun muncul sebagai kuasa imperialis?
(c) Mengapakah negara perindustrian memerlukan tanah jajahan pada abad kesembilan belas?
(d) Apakah perbezaan kapitalisme yang dihasilkan?
Jawapan:
(a) Kapitalisme berdasarkan prinsip perdagangan bebas tanpa kawalan atau peraturan oleh negara disebut Kapitalisme monopoli.
(b) Jepun muncul sebagai kekuatan imperialis dengan mencaplok semenanjung Liaotung dengan Port Arthur walaupun terdapat peringatan yang diberikan oleh Rusia, Jerman dan Perancis.
(c) Kerana koloni bertindak sebagai pasar untuk lebihan barang dan bekalan bahan mentah yang banyak.
(d) Kapitalisme menghasilkan kemiskinan dan kekayaan yang melampau. Kawasan kumuh dan pencakar langit. Negeri empayar dan koloni yang dieksploitasi bergantung.

Soalan 2.
Maharaja Jerman

(a) Apakah sifat Kaisar Kaiser Wilhelm II dari Jerman?
Jawapan:
Kaisar Kaiser Wilhelm II dari Jerman bersikap tegas dan agresif. Dia menyatakan bahawa Jerman akan menjadi pemimpin dunia.

(b) Apa bentuk Jerman yang ganas disebut?
Jawapan:
Ia dipanggil Kultur Jerman.

(c) Mengapa Kaiser Wilhelm campur tangan dalam urusan Maghribi?
Jawapan:
Perjanjian Inggeris dengan Perancis mengenai kepentingan yang terakhir di Maghribi dipersetujui oleh Jerman. Oleh itu, Kaiser Wilhelm II dari Jerman sengaja mengakui kebebasan Sultan dan menuntut persidangan antarabangsa untuk memutuskan masa depan Maghribi.

(d) Apa yang berlaku dengan tanah jajahan Jerman di Afrika?
Jawapan:
Jajahan Jerman di Afrika barat dan timur diserang oleh Sekutu. Oleh kerana tanah jajahan ini agak jauh dari Jerman, mereka tidak dapat menerima bantuan segera, dan oleh itu terpaksa menyerah kepada Sekutu.

Soalan 3.
Perang Balkan
(a) Mengapa Liga Balkan dibentuk?
(b) Apakah hasil Perang Balkan pertama?
(c) Siapa yang kalah dalam perang ini?
(d) Apakah nama Perjanjian yang ditandatangani pada akhir Perang Balkan kedua ini?
Jawapan:
(a) Untuk menguasai Yunani, Serbia, Bulgaria dan Montenegro dalam menggantikan Balkan dari Turki, pada bulan Mac 1912 Liga Balkan dibentuk.
(b) Liga Balkan mengalahkan pasukan Turki dalam perang Balkan ke-1.
(c) Turki dan Bulgaria dikalahkan dalam perang ini.
(d) Perjanjian Bucharest pada bulan Ogos 1913.

VII. Jawab yang berikut secara terperinci

Soalan 1.
Bincangkan penyebab utama Perang Dunia Pertama.
Jawapan:
Sebab-sebab Perang Dunia Pertama diberikan di bawah:

  1. Pembentukan pakatan Eropah dan pakatan balas
  2. Munculnya bentuk nasionalisme yang ganas di negara-negara seperti Inggeris, Perancis dan Jerman
  3. Sikap agresif Maharaja Jerman Kaiser Wilhelm II
  4. Permusuhan Perancis terhadap Jerman
  5. Peluang untuk politik kuasa imperialis di Balkan
  6. Perang Balkan
  7. Sebab segera termasuk pembunuhan Archduke Franz Ferdinand, anak saudara dan pewaris kepada Franz Joseph, Maharaja Austria-Hungaria, oleh Princip, seorang Serb Bosnia, pada 28 Jun 1914.

Soalan 2.
Sorot peruntukan Perjanjian Versailles yang berkaitan dengan Jerman.
Jawapan:

  1. Semua kuasa pusat diarahkan untuk membayar ganti rugi perang terutama Jerman harus membayar sejumlah besar kerugian yang dialami.
  2. Jerman harus membayar 6,600 juta pound mengikut Suruhanjaya Reparasi, tetapi dapat dibayar secara ansuran.
  3. Orang Jerman tidak boleh memiliki kapal selam dan angkatan udara, tetapi dapat memiliki angkatan laut kecil dan tentera seramai satu juta orang.
  4. Austria dan Jerman berpisah dan Austria diberi kemerdekaan.
  5. Semua jajahan Jerman berada di bawah wilayah Liga bangsa yang diamanatkan.
  6. Jerman harus menyerahkan semua harta, hak dan hak miliknya di luar negara kepada sekutu.
  7. Jerman menyerahkan Alsace-Lorraine ke Perancis.
  8. Dia menandatangani Perjanjian Brest-Litovsk dengan Rusia dan perjanjian Bucharest dengan Bulgaria.
  9. Rhineland dijajah oleh sekutu. Kawasan timur Rhineland akan diniliterisasi.
  10. Poland diciptakan semula dengan koridor ke Baltik yang mengandungi pelabuhan Danzig Jerman.

Soalan 3.
Terangkan perjalanan Revolusi Rusia di bawah kepimpinan Lenin.
Jawapan:

  1. Lenin berada di Switzerland ketika revolusi meletus di Rusia. Dia mahu meneruskan revolusi.
  2. Slogannya "Semua kuasa kepada Soviet" segera memenangkan pemimpin pekerja. Dihancurkan oleh kekurangan masa perang, orang-orang tertarik dengan slogan 'Roti, Damai dan Tanah'.
  3. Pada bulan Oktober Lenin meyakinkan Jawatankuasa Pusat Bolshevik untuk memutuskan revolusi segera. Trotsky menyiapkan rancangan terperinci
  4. Pada 7 November bangunan utama kerajaan, termasuk Istana Musim Dingin, markas Perdana Menteri, disita oleh pekerja kilang bersenjata dan pasukan revolusi
  5. Pada 8 November 1917, pemerintah Komunis baru berkuasa di Rusia. Kepalanya kali ini adalah Lenin. Parti Bolshevik dinamakan semula sebagai Parti Komunis Rusia.

Soalan 4.
Anggarkan kerja yang dilakukan oleh League of Nations, menunjukkan alasan kegagalannya?
Jawapan:

  1. League of nation dibentuk pada tahun 1920 dengan objektif berkembar untuk mengelakkan perang dan menjaga keamanan di dunia.
  2. Kerja utama yang dilakukan oleh Liga adalah untuk menyelesaikan perselisihan yang timbul antara Sweden dan Finlandia mengenai kedaulatan Pulau Aaland. Ia memutuskan bahawa pulau itu harus pergi ke Finland.
  3. Liga menyelesaikan pertikaian perbatasan antara Poland dan Jerman di Silesia atas.
  4. Ketika perselisihan timbul antara Yunani dan Bulgaria pada tahun 1925, Yunani menyerang Bulgaria dan Liga memerintahkan gencatan senjata.
  5. Liga telah berjaya menandatangani Perjanjian Locarno pada tahun 1925 di mana Jerman, Perancis, Belgium, Britain dan Itali saling menjamin keamanan di Eropah Barat.
  6. Sebab utama kegagalan Liga adalah Itali, Jepun dan Jerman yang diketuai oleh diktator menolak untuk terikat dengan perintah Liga dan mula melanggar peraturan Liga.
  7. Ketika Liga mengecam pelanggaran tersebut, mereka menarik diri dari keanggotaan mereka.
  8. Liga tidak mempunyai kekuatan ketenteraan sendiri.
  9. Walaupun memiliki keahlian di seluruh dunia, ia menjadi pusat diplomasi Eropah.
  10. Liga tetap menjadi saksi pasif terhadap peristiwa, isu dan kejadian pelanggaran sehingga akhirnya dibubarkan pada tahun 1946.

Soalan 1.
Pelajar boleh diajar untuk menandai tempat pertempuran dan ibu kota negara-negara yang terlibat dalam Perang.
Jawapan:
(a) Pertempuran perang Dunia I:
(i) Pertempuran Tannenberg
(ii) Pertempuran Marne
(iii) Pertempuran Gallipoli
(iv) Pertempuran Jutland
(v) Pertempuran Verdun
(vi) Pertempuran Passchendaele
(vii) Pertempuran Caporetto
(viii) Pertempuran Cambrai
(ix) Pertempuran Somme.

(b) Ibu kota negara yang terlibat dalam IWW.
Kuasa pusat & modal:
(i) Jerman & # 8211 Berlin
(ii) Austria & # 8211 Vienna
(iii) Hungary & # 8211 Budapest
(iv) Itali & # 8211 Rom
(v) Kerajaan Uthmaniyyah & # 8211 Istanbul, Bursa, Edirne, Sogut
(vi) Bulgaria & # 8211 Sofia
(vii) Tu rkey & # 8211 An ka ra
Sekutu- Modal:
(i) Great Britain & # 8211 London
(ii) Perancis & # 8211 Paris
(iii) Rusia & # 8211 Moscow
(iv) Itali & # 8211 Rom
(v) Amerika Syarikat & # 8211 Washington D. C

Soalan 2.
Tugasan atau projek berfungsi mengenai peranan tentera India di medan pertempuran yang berlainan di seluruh dunia dan korban yang mereka alami semasa Perang dicuba oleh para pelajar.
Jawapan:
Semasa Perang, Tentera India menyumbang sejumlah besar bahagian dan brigade bebas ke Eropah, Mediterranean dan Timur Tengah. Tentera India berperang melawan Empayar Jerman di Afrika Timur Jerman dan di Front Barat. Perpecahan India juga dihantar ke Mesir, Gallipoli dan hampir 700,000 berkhidmat di Mesopotamia menentang Kerajaan Uthmaniyyah. Walaupun beberapa bahagian dihantar ke luar negara, yang lain harus tetap berada di India menjaga North West Frontier dan menjalankan tugas keselamatan dan latihan dalaman.

Sebagai tambahan kepada pembahagian tetap, Tentera India juga membentuk sejumlah brigade bebas. Sebagai sebahagian dari Tentera Darat Selatan, Briged Aden ditempatkan di Protectorate Aden di laluan tentera laut yang strategik dari Eropah ke India, di mana pertempuran terbatas.

Briged Bannu, Briged Derajat dan Briged Kohat semuanya merupakan bahagian dari Tentera Utara dan mereka dikerahkan di sepanjang North West Frontier. Briged Parsi Selatan dibentuk pada tahun 1915 pada awal Kempen Parsi untuk melindungi pemasangan minyak Anglo-Parsi di Parsi selatan dan Teluk Parsi.

Semasa meletusnya perang, Tentera India mempunyai 150,000 orang terlatih dan Pemerintah India menawarkan perkhidmatan dua pasukan berkuda dan dua bahagian infantri untuk perkhidmatan di luar negara. Pasukan yang dikenali sebagai Angkatan Ekspedisi India A melekat pada Pasukan Ekspedisi Inggeris dan keempat-empat bahagian dibentuk menjadi dua kor tentera: korps tentera infanteri dan Kor tentera berkuda India.

Angkatan Ekspedisi India B terdiri daripada Briged ke-27 (Bangalore) dari Divisi 9 (Secunderabad) dan Briged Infantri Perkhidmatan Imperial, batalion perintis, bateri artileri gunung dan jurutera dihantar ke Tanganyika dengan tugas menyerang Afrika Timur Jerman. Force C dibentuk dari tentera Punjab ke-29 tentera India, bersama-sama dengan setengah batalion dari negeri-negeri Princely di Jind, Bharatpur, Kapurthala dan Rampur. Pasukan Tentera India terbesar untuk berkhidmat di luar negara ialah Pasukan Ekspedisi India D di Mesopotamia, di bawah komando Leftenan Jeneral Sir John Nixon.

Lebih satu juta tentera India berkhidmat di luar negara, 62,000 di antaranya mati dan 67,000 lagi cedera. Secara keseluruhan sekurang-kurangnya 74.187 tentera India mati semasa Perang. Ketua-Marsekal Sir Claude Auchinleck, Panglima Tentera Darat India dari tahun 1942, berkomentar bahawa British "tidak mungkin melalui kedua-dua perang [Perang Dunia I dan II] jika mereka tidak memiliki Tentera India."

Tandakan negara berikut di peta dunia.

  1. Great Britain
  2. Jerman
  3. Perancis
  4. Itali
  5. Maghribi
  6. Turki
  7. Serbia
  8. Bosnia
  9. Yunani
  10. Austria-Hungary
  11. Bulgaria
  12. Rumania

Garis Masa:

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Social Science Wabah Perang Dunia I dan Selepasnya Pertanyaan dan Jawapan Penting Tambahan

I. Pilih jawapan yang betul

Soalan 1.
Perjanjian berkhidmat ditandatangani dengan:
(a) Austria
(b) Hungary
(c) Turki
(d) Bulgaria
Jawapan:
(c) Turki

Soalan 2.
Dasar imperialisme yang diikuti oleh negara-negara Eropah dari tahun 1870-1945 dikenali sebagai & # 8230 & # 8230
(a) Imperialisme baru
(b) imperialisme ketenteraan
(c) Neo-imperialisme
Jawapan:
(a) Imperialisme baru

Soalan 3.
Presiden Woodrow Wilson mengemukakan & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 .. mata dalam Liga negara.
(a) 12
(b) 11
(c) 10
(d) 14
Jawapan:
(d) 14

Soalan 4.
Dengan tentera modem dan tentera laut, & # 8230 .. telah muncul sebagai industri maju
kuasa.
(a) Jerman
(b) Jepun
(c) Itali
Jawapan:
(b) Jepun

Soalan 5.
Jerman menyerah kalah dalam:
(a) 1917
(b) 1918
(c) 1919
(d) 1916
Jawapan:
(b) 1918

Soalan 6.
‘Sphere of pengaruh’ diadopsi oleh negara-negara Eropah pada & # 8230 & # 8230
(a) Jepun
(b) China
(c) India
Jawapan:
(b) China

Soalan 7
& # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 .. adalah nama parlimen Rusia.
(a) Tsar
(b) Trotsky
(c) Duma
(d) Rasputin.
Jawapan:
(c) Duma

Soalan 8.
Perkataan "Imperialisme" berasal dari & # 8230 & # 8230
(a) Yunani
(b) Jerman
(c) Bahasa Latin
Jawapan:
(c) Bahasa Latin

Soalan 9.
Nicholas II melepaskan takhta pada & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230. 1917.
(a) 12 Mac
(b) 15 Mac
(c) 18 November
(d) 14 Oktober
Jawapan:
(b) 15 Mac

Soalan 10.
Perkembangan & # 8230 & # 8230. mempercepat pergerakan barang antara jajahan dan negara lain.
(a) Jalan raya
(b) Jalan air
(c) Keretapi
Jawapan:
(c) Keretapi

  1. Hasil terbesar dari perang dunia pertama ialah & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230.
  2. The Trust adalah organisasi perindustrian di & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230.
  3. Perdana Menteri Imperialis Afrika Selatan dipanggil & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230.
  4. Kartel bermaksud & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230. syarikat dalam bidang perniagaan yang sama.
  5. Perjanjian & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230. ditandatangani selepas perang Russo-Jepun dan Jepun kembali ke pelabuhan Arthur.
  6. Bentuk nasionalisme yang ganas di Jerman disebut sebagai & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230.
  7. Perancis dan Jerman dulu & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230.
  8. Musuh antara dan menyebabkan tercetusnya perang pada tahun 1914.
  9. Negara baru Albania diciptakan mengikut perjanjian & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230. ditandatangani pada tahun 1913.
  10. Rusia mengalami kerugian besar dalam pertempuran & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230.
  11. Perang parit adalah gaya yang diikuti dalam pertempuran & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230.
  12. Rusia menandatangani perjanjian & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230. dengan Jerman.
  13. Itali secara rasmi bergabung dengan sekutu di & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230.
  14. Battle of Jutland adalah & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230. pertempuran.
  15. & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230. adalah nama kapal Amerika yang tenggelam oleh Jerman.
  16. & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230. adalah salah satu prinsip dalam persidangan perdamaian Paris empat belas perkara.
  17. Keadaan perang menyebabkan & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230. pergerakan di India.
  18. & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230. memodenkan Turki dan mengubahnya dari semua pengiktirafan.
  19. £ adalah simbol & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230.
  20. Pesta Bolshevik dinamakan semula sebagai & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230 & # 8230. pesta.
  1. Revolusi Rusia
  2. USA
  3. Cecil Rhodes
  4. Persatuan
  5. Portsmouth
  6. Kultur
  7. Saingan
  8. Austria dan Serbia
  9. London
  10. Tannenburg
  11. Marne
  12. Brest Litovsk
  13. 1916
  14. Tentera Laut
  15. Lusitania
  16. Tekad diri
  17. Peraturan Rumah
  18. Paun Sterling
  19. Kemal Pasha
  20. Komunis Rusia

III. Pilih pernyataan yang betul.

Soalan 1.
(i) Pencapaian industri Jerman pada separuh akhir abad ke-19 memberinya kedudukan yang dominan di Eropah.
(ii) Ketika Jerman datang ke tempat eksploitasi, ia menjadi lemah dalam kekuatan ketenteraannya.
(iii) Ketika tidak ada tempat lain untuk berkembang, negara-negara imperialis merebut kepemilikan lain.
(iv) Rusia, Britain dan Perancis bergabung dalam perebutan tanah jajahan.
(a) (i) dan (ii) betul
(b) (i) dan (iii) salah
(c) (ii) dan (iv) salah
(d) (i), (ii) dan (iv) betul
Jawapan:
(c) (ii) dan (iv) salah

Soalan 2.
(i) Kuasa pusat terdiri daripada Jerman, Austria-Hungaria, Turki dan Bulgaria.
(ii) Itali sangat menyokong Jerman.
(iii) Pada April 1916, Britain, Perancis dan Itali menandatangani Perjanjian London.
(iv) Itali bersetuju untuk memasuki perang melawan kuasa pusat sebagai balasan wilayah ini setelah perang.
(a) (i), (ii) dan (iii) betul
(b) (ii), (iii) dan (iv) betul
(c) (i) dan (iii) betul
(d) (i) dan (iv) betul
Jawapan:
(d) (i) dan (iv) betul

Soalan 3.
(i) Parit adalah parit yang digali oleh tentera yang memungkinkan tentera.
(ii) Ia dilakukan untuk melindungi diri mereka dari tembakan musuh.
(iii) Pertempuran Jutland tidak dapat dilupakan untuk perang Trench.
(iv) Sistem parit yang digunakan dalam perang dunia pertama terdiri dari enam hingga tujuh garis parit yang berjalan selari antara satu sama lain.
(a) (ii) dan (iv) betul
(b) (i) dan (ii) betul
(c) (i) dan (iv) betul
(d) (iii) dan (iv) betul
Jawapan:
(b) (i) dan (ii) betul

Soalan 4.
(i) Peruntukan utama perjanjian Versailles adalah bahawa semua kuasa pusat diarahkan untuk membayar ganti rugi perang.
(ii) Semua jajahan Jerman menjadi wilayah mandat di bawah Liga negara-negara.
(iii) Lombong arang batu Saar diberikan kepada Bulgaria.
(iv) Schleswig Utara diberikan kepada Perancis.
(a) (iii) dan (iv) betul
(b) (i) dan (ii) betul
(c) (i), (ii), (iv) betul
(d) (ii) dan (iv) betul
Jawapan:
(b) (i) dan (ii) betul

Soalan 5.
(i) Triple Alliance ditandatangani pada tahun 1882 antara Jerman, Austria-Hungary dan Itali.
(ii) Entente cordiale ditandatangani pada tahun 1906 antara Britain dan Rusia.
(iii) Triple Entente ditandatangani antara Britain, Perancis dan Rusia.
(iv) Pelanggaran Britain terhadap peneutralan Belgia memaksa Jerman memasuki perang.
(a) (i), (ii), (iv) betul
(b) (iii) dan (iv) betul
(c) (i) dan (iii) betul
(d) (ii) dan (iv) betul
Jawapan:
(c) (i) dan (iii) betul

Soalan 1.
Tegasan (A): Walaupun terdapat peringatan dari tiga kuasa besar, Rusia, Jerman dan Perancis, Jepun mencaplok Semenanjung Liaotung dengan Port Arthur.
Sebab (R): Jepun membuktikan bahawa ia adalah negara terkuat di Asia Timur.
(a) Kedua-dua A dan R betul
(b) A betul tetapi R bukan alasan yang betul
(c) Kedua-dua A dan R salah
(d) R betul tetapi tidak ada kaitan dengan A
Jawapan:
(a) Kedua-dua A dan R betul

Soalan 2.
Penegasan (A): Dua persidangan damai diadakan di Hague di Belanda pada tahun 1899 dan pada tahun 1907.
Sebab (R): Lenin dari Rusia ingin membawa keamanan sejagat dan mencadangkan persidangan ini.
(a) Kedua-dua A dan R betul
(b) A betul tetapi R bukan alasan yang betul
(c) Kedua-dua A dan R salah
(d) R betul tetapi tidak mempunyai kaitan dengan A
Jawapan:
(b) A betul tetapi R bukan alasan yang betul

Soalan 3.
Penegasan (A): Itali secara rasmi bergabung dengan sekutu yang berperang dengan Austria, awalnya bertahan, tetapi akhirnya runtuh.
Sebab (R): Jerman datang ke bantuan Austria & # 8217
(a) Kedua-dua A dan R betul
(b) A betul tetapi R bukan alasan yang betul
(c) Kedua-dua A dan R salah
(d) R betul tetapi tidak mempunyai kaitan dengan A
Jawapan:
(a) Kedua-dua A dan R betul

Soalan 4.
Penegasan (A): Di Jerman dan Austria, wanita dan kanak-kanak menderita kelaparan dan kekurangan.
Sebab (R): Pesawat terbang digunakan untuk mengebom penduduk awam yang disasarkan.
(a) Kedua-dua A dan R betul
(b) A betul tetapi R bukan alasan yang betul
(c) Kedua-dua A dan R salah
(d) R betul tetapi tidak ada kaitan dengan A
Jawapan:
(b) A betul tetapi R bukan alasan yang betul

Soalan 5.
Penegasan (A): Marxis di Rusia mempunyai kekayaan untuk menjadikan Lenin sebagai pemimpin mereka.
Sebab (R): Tsar Nicholas li berada di bawah pengaruh kuat isterinya Alexandra.
(a) Kedua-dua A dan R betul
(b) A betul tetapi R bukan alasan yang betul
(c) Kedua-dua A dan R salah
(d) R betul tetapi tidak mempunyai kaitan dengan A
Jawapan:
(b) A betul tetapi R bukan alasan yang betul

Soalan 6.
Penegasan (A): Liga negara dapat menerapkan prinsip keselamatan bersama.
Sebab (R): Ia disokong oleh Itali, Jepun dan Jerman.
(a) Kedua-dua A dan R betul
(b) A betul tetapi R bukan alasan yang betul
(c) Kedua-dua A dan R salah
(d) R betul tetapi tidak mempunyai kaitan dengan A
Jawapan:
(c) Kedua-dua A dan R salah

Soalan 1.
Padankan Lajur I dengan Lajur II.

Jawapan:
A. (iv)
B. (v)
C. (i)
D. (ii)
E. (iii)

Soalan 2.
Padankan lajur I dengan lajur II.

Jawapan:
A. (iv)
B. (i)
CV)
D. (ii)
E. (iii)

VI. Jawab soalan berikut dengan ringkas

Soalan 1.
Apa tujuan negara kapitalis?
Jawapan:
Tujuan negara kapitalis adalah untuk menghasilkan lebih banyak dan lebih banyak. Lebihan kekayaan yang dihasilkan digunakan untuk membina lebih banyak kilang, landasan kereta api, kapal uap dan usaha lain.

Soalan 2.
Apakah kolonialisme?
Jawapan:
(i) Kolonialisme merujuk kepada dasar memperoleh dan mengekalkan tanah jajahan terutama untuk eksploitasi.
(ii) Ini juga bermaksud bahawa ia adalah hubungan antara majoriti pribumi dan minoriti penjajah asing.

Soalan 3.
Apa penyebab langsung perang dunia pertama?
Jawapan:
Keponakan dan pewaris Franz Joseph, Maharaja Austria-Hungary. Duke Arch Franz Ferdinand dibunuh oleh Princip seorang Serbia dari Bosnia. Ini adalah sebab segera kerana Austria mendapat bantuan dari Jerman dan Serbia mendapat bantuan dari Rusia. Oleh itu perang bermula pada tahun 1914.

Soalan 4.
Bagaimana China menjadi jajahan antarabangsa?
Jawapan:

  1. Boers dikalahkan oleh kuasa asing.
  2. Ketika mereka sampai di Peking, ibu kota China, Permaisuri Janda melarikan diri dari ibu kota,
  3. A.S. dan England merangka Dasar Pintu Terbuka atau Dasar Terlalu Saya.
  4. Wilayah-wilayah China dibahagi-bahagikan di antara kuasa asing untuk hak perdagangan. Oleh itu China menjadi tanah jajahan antarabangsa.

Soalan 5.
Apa yang anda faham dengan persidangan damai Paris?
Jawapan:
Persidangan damai Paris diadakan pada Januari 1919 dua bulan selepas penandatanganan gencatan senjata.
Woodrow Wilson dari Amerika dan Lloyd George dari Britain adalah personaliti penting. Pada 28 Jun 1919, perjanjian damai ditandatangani di The Hall of Mirrors di Versailles.

Soalan 6.
Apa penyebab langsung Perang Dunia Pertama?
Jawapan:

  1. Pada tahun 1908, Austria mencaplok Bosnia dan Herzegovina menentang Kongres Berlin.
  2. Putera Austria Francis Ferdinand dan isterinya dibunuh di Sarajevo pada 28 Jun 1914.
  3. Austria menghantar ultimatum kepada Serbia, tetapi Serbia tidak mengendahkannya.
  4. Oleh itu, Austria mengisytiharkan perang ke atas Serbia pada 28 Julai 1914.

Soalan 7.
Tulislah slogan yang dikemukakan oleh Lenin yang menarik minat orang-orang Soviet.
Jawapan:
"Semua kekuatan untuk Soviet" dan "Roti, Damai dan Tanah" adalah slogan-slogan yang dikemukakan oleh Lenin yang menarik orang-orang Soviet yang hancur oleh kekurangan masa perang.

Soalan 8.
Tulis dua istilah Perjanjian Versailles.
Jawapan:

  1. Ganti rugi perang yang besar dikenakan ke atas Jerman. Tenteranya dikurangkan.
  2. Kekayaan Jerman di luar negara dibahagikan di antara negara-negara yang menang.

Soalan 9.
Tulis dua objektif Liga.
Jawapan:
Dua objektif utama Liga Bangsa-Bangsa adalah (i) Untuk mengelakkan perang dan menjaga keamanan di dunia, (ii) Untuk mempromosikan kerjasama antarabangsa dalam urusan ekonomi dan sosial.

Soalan 10.
Apa maksud anda dengan Revolusi Rusia?
Jawapan:
Kejatuhan raja pada Februari 1917 dan peristiwa Oktober dikenali sebagai Revolusi Rusia.

Soalan 11.
Apa itu Duma? Mengapa Tsar memecat Duma pertama dalam 75 hari pemilihannya?
Jawapan:
Majlis elektif elektif yang ditubuhkan pada tahun 1905 oleh Nicholas II di Rusia dikenali sebagai Duma. Oleh kerana Tsar tidak ingin ada yang mempertanyakan kewibawaannya, maka dia menolak Duma pertama dalam 75 hari.

VII. Jawab semua soalan yang diberikan di bawah setiap kapsyen

1. Ciri-ciri Imperialisme

(a) Apa yang membawa kepada konsep Imperialisme?
Jawapan:
Kapitalisme pasti membawa kepada konsep Imperialisme.

(b) What was Lenin idea on Imperialism?
Answer:
According to Lenin, imperialism is the highest stage of Capitalism.

(c) What were the purposes for which the colonies were made use of?
Answer:
The colonies served as a market for goods and also vast suppliers of raw materials like cotton, Rubber etc.

(d) What was the logic behind Imperialism apart from colonisation?
Answer:
The logic behind Imperialism apart from colonisation was, total militarisation and total war.

2. The ambition of Germany

(а) Who was the ruler of Germany during the First World War?
Answer:
Kaiser Wilhelm II.

(b) What did he believe?
Answer:
He believed that Germany alone was competent to rule the whole world.

(c) What could not be tolerated by him?
Answer:
He could not tolerate the British saying that the Sun never sets in the British Empire.

(a) Name the Naval battle that took place in 1916?
Answer:
In 1916, the Naval battle had taken place in the North sea called as Battle of Jutland.

(b) Which country started the Sub-marine warfare thereafter?
Answer:
Germany started their Submarine warfare thereafter.

(c) Name the ship that bombarded Madras?
Answer:
The ship that bombarded Madras was the famous Emden ship.

(d) Name the American ship torpedoed by a German Submarine.
Answer:
Lusitania, an American ship was torpedoed by a German Submarine.

4. Course of the First World War

(a) Give the duration of the First World War.
Answer:
From July 28, 1914 to November 11, 1918.

(b) Who were called the Central Powers?
Answer:
The countries which were on the side of Germany were called the Central Powers.

(c) Who were called the Allies?
Answer:
The countries which were on the side of Britain were called as the Allies.

(d) What and all were used in war?
Answer:
Artillery, Tanks and submarines were used in the war.

(a) Where was he born?
Answer:
Lenin was bom in 1870 near the middle Volga to educated parents.

(b) What was his belief?
Answer:
Lenin believed that the wav for freedom was through mass action.

(c) When and why was he arrested?
Answer:
He was arrested in 1895 and kept in Serbia for encouraging the ideas of Marxism to the factory workers in St. Petersburg.

(d) How did he form the Bolshevik party?
Answer:
Lenin gained the support of small majority called Bolshmstvo known as Bolsheviks which later became the Bolshevik party.

(a) How were the terms of the treaties drafted?
Answer:
Based upon the fourteen points of the American President Woodrow Wilson.

(b) What did Germany surrendered to France?
Answer:
Germany surrendered Alsace and Lorraine to Europe.

(c) Where was monarchy abolished?
Answer:
In Germany, Russia, Austria and Turkey.

(d) Name the new Republics.
Answer:
Czechoslovakia and Poland.

VIII. Answer the following in detail

Question 1.
Write a note on the structure and composition of its League of Nations.
Answer:

  1. The covenant of the League of Nations was formed at the Paris peace conference after the first world war.
  2. President of USA -Woodrow Wilson largely supported for this task to be accomplished.
  3. The structure of the League consist of the Assembly, the council, the Secretariat, the permanent court of Justice and the International Labour organization.
  4. Each member country was represented in the Assembly.
  5. Each member country’ and had one vote and also possessed the right of veto.
  6. Britain, France, Italy, Japan and United States were originally declared permanent members of the council.
  7. The council was the executive of the League.
  8. The staff of the secretariat was appointed by the Secretary General in consultation with the council.
  9. The court of Justice consisted of fifteen Judges.
  10. The International Labour organization comprised a Secretariat. The general conference will include four representatives from each country.
  11. The first secretary general of League of Nations was Sir Eric Drummond from Britain.

Question 2.
What were the results of the first world war?
Answer:
The Paris Peace Conference:

  1. The first world war came to an end by the Paris Peace Conference of 1919.
  2. The city of Danzig was internationlized.
  3. Lithuvania, Latvia and Estonia were granted independence.

The formation of the League of Nations:

  1. The first world war brought untold miseries to people.
  2. All the nations wanted a permanent body to maintain peace in the world. So the League of Nations was formed in 1920.
  3. The victorious nations forced the defeated nations with unfair treaties. It sowed the seed for the second world war.

Question 3.
What was the impact of First world war on India?
Answer:


British Diplomat's Guide to the Balkan Races - History

David Rohde's work in Srebrenica resulted in a remarkable flood of recognition from the profession. In the year following his release, he received the George Polk prize, the Overseas Press Club award, the Sigma Delta Chi prize, the Investigative Reporters and Editors prize, the Livingston Award for Young Journalists, the Paul Tobenkin Award for Human Rights Reporting and, in the spring of 1996, the Pulitzer Prize for international reporting -- all before the age of thirty.

His book, Endgame: The Betrayal and Fall of Srebrenica, was published by Farrar, Strauss & Giroux in 1997. Rohde was offered a position at the New York Times, and accepted it.

In the following years he reported on the Metro Desk, producing noteworthy articles on criminal justice issues in the New York metropolitan area. He hopes to return to a foreign posting someday, but not to the Balkans. He remains in touch with some of the refugee families he wrote about. He also maintains a close friendship with Faye Bowers, with whom he attends an occasional Red Sox game.


EU commissioner floats shift on Albania membership talks

Move would leave North Macedonia out in the cold due to Bulgarian blockade.

Press play to listen to this article

The European Commission has raised the prospect of starting EU membership talks with Albania while keeping its neighbor North Macedonia on hold due to a dispute with Bulgaria.

Such a move, floated by Enlargement Commissioner Olivér Várhelyi, would be highly controversial as EU officials consider North Macedonia has made more progress toward EU standards than Albania.

The approach is opposed by other EU officials and by many member countries, including key players such as Germany. During a recent meeting of EU ambassadors that discussed the Balkans, not one of the 10 envoys who spoke in the debate mentioned the idea, according to one diplomat.

However, by floating the option, Várhelyi has revived a debate about the EU’s enlargement process, which is widely seen as having stalled in the Western Balkans. That has prompted fears among officials and diplomats that the EU’s sway in its own neighborhood is declining and Russia and China will fill the void.

A discussion paper from the EU’s diplomatic service, circulated ahead of a meeting of EU foreign ministers on Monday that will discuss the Western Balkans, warns that “the people in the region are experiencing a sense of deep disappointment in the enlargement process” and a “perception of tardy EU delivery of the COVID-19 vaccines has further fed a narrative of disillusionment.”

The so-called non-paper, seen by POLITICO, says “a strong EU presence is the best way to prevent the Western Balkans from drifting away.”

But the bloc’s standing in the region will hardly be enhanced by senior officials openly disagreeing on how to handle North Macedonia and Albania.

EU governments gave both countries the green light for talks more than a year ago but told Albania it had to undertake more democratic reforms before negotiations could begin.

Since last November, Bulgaria has blocked the start of negotiations with North Macedonia as part of a dispute that covers language and history.

Decoupling denounced

Várhelyi, Hungary’s commissioner in Brussels, floated the idea of “decoupling” the two membership applications earlier this week in comments to broadcaster Euronews. That prompted a swift pushback from other EU officials, who insisted it was unwise and unviable, and that there was no plan to pursue it.

To become a reality, decoupling would need the support of all the EU’s member countries — something it clearly does not have at present. On Friday, Germany’s Europe Minister Michael Roth made clear Berlin did not share Várhelyi’s view, saying both North Macedonia and Albania should begin talks in June.

“Both countries have delivered on required reforms — now #EU has to deliver, too. Further delay undermines EU credibility+stability in the region,” he tweeted, alongside a video clip of Várhelyi setting out his stance.

Slovak Foreign Minister Ivan Korčok declared that “credible EU enlargement policy” should be about abandoning “the veto in the Council” — a clear reference to the Bulgarian blockade.

North Macedonia’s government also made plain it was not impressed with the commissioner’s move. “My country has fulfilled all the conditions that were set, in line with European values, as has been repeatedly confirmed by the Commission itself,” Deputy Prime Minister Nikola Dimitrov said.

“The case of North Macedonia is a credibility test for the EU in the Western Balkans,” he added. “Will the EU keep its promises?”

Várhelyi, however, seems to be sticking to his stance. At a news briefing on Friday, a spokeswoman for the commissioner, Ana Pisonero, reiterated his view that decoupling could be an option.

“It’s true that he pointed out that, of course, should there not be an agreement in the case of North Macedonia, this might be something that might need to be considered,” she said, while noting the decision was “completely in the hands” of member states in the Council of the EU.

But while there is broad opposition among EU members to decoupling at present, some diplomats predicted the EU may end up having to reconsider if a deal can’t be found that lifts the Bulgarian blockade. “What is clear is that decoupling is not an option now, the rest is to be seen,” said a diplomat.


The Manhunt for the Butchers of the Balkans

Months lengthened into years as those charged with tracking down the genocidal war criminals stayed on the scent. They never gave up, and their determination paid off.

Malcolm Forbes

Joel Robine/AFP/Getty

One night in early 1998, two dozen American soldiers from Delta Force lay in wait by the side of a Bosnian mountain road to ambush the Bosnian Serb war criminal Radovan Karadžić. According to a tip-off, Karadžić would be passing en route to a meeting within the next 48 hours. In order to take him alive and avoid a shootout with his four experienced bodyguards, the team had needed a plan that prioritized the element of surprise. To that end, they proposed to make use of three custom-made props: a 10-foot mat studded with razor-sharp titanium spikes capable of puncturing the tires of Karadžić’s car, a sausage-shaped grenade that would blow off the doors and concuss its occupants—and, as the bizarre pièce de résistance, a gorilla suit.

As the soldier who came up with the idea put it, “The shock of seeing a freaking gorilla walking down the road, along with their uncontrollable curiosity to understand what the hell it’s doing in the middle of Bosnia, may just make them pause a couple more seconds, which ought to create the perfect conditions for us to fire the rounds and conduct the capture.”

But despite these best laid plans, and the reliability of Delta’s informant, the capture didn’t happen because Karadžić failed to show up, either that night or the next. For fear of being compromised, the team was told to stand down and disband. Karadžić, the Bosnian Serbs’ political leader, together with his military commander Ratko Mladić, would remain at large for another decade and become Europe’s most wanted men.

The long and troubled attempt to track down, arrest, and bring to justice those responsible for unleashing carnage on the people of the former Yugoslavia is at the heart of an engrossing new book by Julian Borger, the diplomatic editor for the Guardian who covered the Bosnian War of the ’90s for the paper and the BBC. On one level, The Butcher’s Trail: How the Search for Balkan War Criminals Became the World’s Most Successful Manhunt is a chronicle of 14 years of false starts, divided loyalties, inherent dangers, and occasional scandals. But ultimately it is the tale of a historic and productive campaign conducted by tireless and fearless investigators who, over time, managed to catch the perpetrators of the worst crimes against humanity committed in Europe since the Nazi era.

Borger opens with a brief history about the disintegration and dismemberment of “the exhausted federal experiment” that was Yugoslavia. Serbia emerges as the most predatory of the constituent republics, with its leader, nationalist despot Slobodan Milošević, ruthlessly creating a Greater Serbia at the expense of his neighbors. This involved seizing towns and then ethnically cleansing them. The most infamous atrocity was the Srebrenica massacre in 1995, in which 8,000 male Bosnian Muslims were killed by Bosnian Serb units under Mladić and on orders from Karadžić. Finally, after looking the other way for too long, the international community sat up, paid heed, and took action.

Not that it had been completely idle. In 1993, a special court, the first international tribunal of its kind since the Nuremberg tribunal, was set up by the UN in The Hague and tasked with pursuing and indicting war criminals. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia drew up a list of suspects ranging from past prison guards to ex-presidents. A ragtag alliance of intelligence agencies and special forces troops from six countries worked entirely in the shadows following trails of blood, some freshly spilled, some almost dried up. Borger notes that it was, quite literally, a manhunt: There was only one woman on the ICTY’s list and she turned herself in. By 2011, all 161 fugitives on the list faced justice one way or another.

Borger’s opening chapters deal with messy maiden arrest missions by the British SAS and Dutch marines, and American failure due to lack of resources and distrustful relations with their French allies. Many of their targets are small fry rather than big fish. Some they spirit away to The Hague for sentencing, others are shot before they can be snared.

Gradually, though, after much reorganizing and re-energizing, the hunters home in on and take alive higher-ranking suspects. In 1998, American SEALs arrest Goran Jelisić, a young but sadistic prison-camp guard who would brazenly introduce himself to new inmates as “the second Adolf.” In 1999, the SAS bag the biggest prize of their campaign, one Gen. Stanislav Galić, who oversaw the daily sniper fire and shelling of the people—civilians, not military personnel—of Sarajevo. And in 2000, the CIA employ Serb bounty-hunters to grab Dragan Nikolić, a concentration camp commander with a predilection for beatings and torture, who later admitted that many of his victims were “people who used to be friends of mine, whom I used to see over the years in cafés, on sports fields, and playgrounds, with whom I spent summer vacations.”

Borger goes on to show how Croat forces were also responsible for war crimes in Croatia and Bosnia. After the war, and after some reluctance, the Croatian government played ball with The Hague and handed over suspects. In return, Croatia was formally recognized as a candidate for EU membership. However, by the time ICTY prosecutors had gathered enough evidence to implicate the father of modern Croatia, President Franjo Tudjman, in crimes of persecution, rape, and murder, was long dead from stomach cancer.

Other suspects die from natural causes or by their own hand before they can be tried. Such instances of thwarted justice make for frustrating reading. A section on American forces prioritizing the capture of more-heavyweight criminals, in particular the participants in the Srebrenica massacre, takes the reader through several emotions. There is anger and revulsion at the level of mass murder that Bosnian Serb troops got away with and for so long (“Kill them all. God damn it,” was the hysterical command of one vengeful general). There is excitement as Delta units close in on targets, and there is cathartic relief as snatch plans are effectively carried out. But there is also disappointment as U.S. forces take stock and realize that despite their success, they have failed to achieve their stated objective of finding leaders.

“We had the tradecraft, we had the equipment and training, but we didn’t have an understanding of the terrain,” opines one Special Operations Forces officer. After 9/11, the Bosnian manhunt is relegated to the back burner, with terrorists replacing war criminals as targets, and the Balkan playing field giving way to the Afghan battleground—a shift from one terra incognita to another.

In one welcome chapter, Borger veers away from the male-dominated realm of hunter and quarry to focus on two tenacious female ICTY prosecutors, Louise Arbour and Carla Del Ponte. Both women weathered criticism and apathy to ensure the Balkan manhunt continued (with Del Ponte even jumping into Condoleezza Rice’s car to appeal for her support). But they also fielded abuse and death threats. Arbour became an assassination target for nationalist networks in Serbia and Croatia. The press and political figures of both countries branded Del Ponte a whore. Rampant nationalism, Borger writes, mutated easily into savage misogyny. Undaunted, the pair continued to fight their campaign, and at the end of their tenure left an important concrete legacy—the ICTY’s own tracking team.

The last, thrilling third of the book is the equivalent of a big-game hunt: the intensified search for and capture of the wretched triumvirate—Milošević, Karadžić, and Mladić. After 200 pages witnessing the arrest and conviction of middlemen in the killing factory, finally we come upon the top brass. Borger replays Milošević’s ignominious fall from power and charts his arrest and subsequent delivery to The Hague by the democratically elected government that had ousted him. In conversations with his jailer about his role as the protagonist of four disastrous Yugoslav wars and the orchestrator of large-scale slaughter of innocent civilians, Milošević shows no remorse, seeing himself not as the losing villain but the “moral victor.”

Milošević was there for the taking, but Karadžić and Mladić remained elusive fugitives, even with $5 million bounties on their heads. At one point, a somewhat cocky Karadžić boasted that it would “take a battalion” to find him and get to him through the Preventiva, his group of bodyguards. After the night Karadžić failed to appear and be rattled by the sight of a gorilla on the road, there was a further American attempt to get the “Serb Pimpernel” by way of an offer of immunity and money to his longtime driver in return for betraying his boss. But the driver panicked, believing the proposal to be a ploy of Karadžić’s to test his loyalty. When that plan backfired the trail went cold. “The shambolic poet-psychiatrist-warlord-gambler managed to stay one step ahead of the enormous military and intelligence effort to find him.”

But his luck ran out in 2008. An intercepted phone call led investigators to a high-rise apartment block in Belgrade, the address of a white-bearded New Age mystic. Alarm bells rang when it transpired that this shaman was in contact with Karadžić’s younger brother, and that he carried half a dozen cellphones, some of which were used to maintain contact with hardline Serb nationalists. He was grabbed while traveling on a bus—“a banal end to a life on the run that Karadžić himself had envisioned in almost mythic terms, his people’s last hope hiding in plain sight from a legion of oppressive foes.” Like Milošević, once at The Hague he denied any wrongdoing and assumed the role of a Serb martyr.

Equally tense and explosive is the account of Mladić’s last days of liberty. Borger explains how over 14 years the pugnacious general was shielded by various groups and institutions: first by the Serbian military establishment, then a close-knit gang of Bosnian Serb wartime lieutenants, and, finally, his beleaguered family. In case any of his minders considered turning him in for the $5 million bounty, Mladić would present them with gift-wrapped portraits of their children or grandchildren—a chilling reminder that he knew where they lived and went to school. In 2011, in another bathetic finale, Mladić was traced to a rundown farmhouse in a small town in northern Serbia. Unlike Karadžić, who opted for disguise and an alias, and pleaded mistaken identity, Mladić comes clean to his captors. “You have found who you’re looking for,” he boldly proclaims. “I’m Ratko Mladić.”

The Butcher’s Trail achieves the dual feat of being both informative and gripping. Borger’s thorough research comprises numerous books, articles, and recently declassified documents on the Balkan conflict and international justice but also first-hand interviews with key players: former soldiers, intelligence officials, investigators, prosecutors, and diplomats from a dozen countries. In addition, Borger impresses by not only divulging facts and dropping shocking revelations (Vladimir Putin’s spy agency, the FSB, took a pro-Serbia stance and protected Mladić) but also analyzing testimonies, evaluating the various mindsets of criminals on The Hague’s list and weighing up conspiracy theories. He even provides close readings of Karadžić’s doggerel poetry—art of the same caliber as Hitler’s watercolors—for indications of inner tumult and hints of future crimes.

Borger ends his history on a bittersweet note. First of all, he is sanguine about the course of justice. Despite the over-long process, the two bloodthirsty Bosnian Serb leaders are on trial for genocide and war crimes and will, at some juncture, be judged and sentenced. However, Borger soon slips in a sobering truth: more and more of Karadžić’s and Mladić’s henchmen are being either acquitted or released after having served only two-thirds of their sentences. Worse, they are returning home to a hero’s welcome—a motorcade drive past cheering, flag-waving crowds. In one instance, a Catholic bishop performed a thanksgiving Mass. Nationalism is on the rise, Borger concludes—if it ever went away—and the crimes of the past are being erased. Perpetrators routinely play the victim card their supporters stick their heads in the sand and slather unsavory facts with a thick layer of revisionism and denial.

And yet Borger offers a discernible silver lining. He argues that the detailed record of the tribunal, with its 7 million documents, cannot be ignored. Nor can the demand for justice for egregious war crimes. And it is justice—the need for it, a championing of it—which lies at the heart of his book. The ICTY demonstrated that war criminals could be tracked down, pulled out of hiding, or wrenched out of complacency, and punished for their deeds. Indeed, to this day, the ICTY is still the high-water mark of international justice for crimes against humanity, the benchmark against which all similar endeavors in the future will be judged.


Boris Johnson: What did he achieve as foreign secretary?

Boris Johnson's job as foreign secretary was to convince the world that Brexit did not mean Britain's withdrawal from global affairs. It is a task that few historians will conclude Mr Johnson achieved.

On Monday, he was supposed to be chairing a summit in London on the Western Balkans to show the UK's continuing commitment to European security.

Instead, foreign ministers tweeted their frustration at the absence of their host as he agonised about his future.

This week is a moment when Britain's voice is meant to be heard - at the Nato summit in Brussels and during President Trump's visit to the UK.

There is diplomacy to be done after the death of a British national from what is suspected to be a Russian nerve agent attack, a shocking event that has been overshadowed by the latest dramas over Brexit.

Instead, the departure of Mr Johnson will add to the uncertainty that diplomats and politicians from overseas feel about Britain's foreign policy.

When Mr Johnson was appointed two years ago, there was hope that his charm and intelligence could turn into statesmanship. Diplomats warmed to this multilingual maverick - here at last was a foreign secretary with some political star quality, who could get Britain heard on the international stage.

And certainly at early international meetings, I watched as Mr Johnson was mobbed by fellow ministers seeking selfies with a tousle-haired phenomenon tipped as a future prime minister.

But soon hope turned to disappointment. The repeated gaffes and inappropriate remarks often undermined any progress Mr Johnson made with Britain's allies and opponents. There were the jokes about dead bodies in Libya and the recitation of inappropriate verses by Rudyard Kipling in Myanmar.

And there was his inaccurate suggestion that the detained British Iranian national Nazanin Zaghari Ratcliffe had been in Iran training journalists, which her family and supporters said had damaged their campaign to secure her release.

Of course, some of the jokes worked and some politicians overseas warmed to the entertaining foreign minister from Britain. There were times when Mr Johnson was an effective minister for foreign affairs.

I travelled with him to Libya last year and he met the right people, said the right things, caused no offence and placed the UK firmly in the mix as an international player in that part of north Africa.

There were moments in other diplomatic forums, such as meetings with Burmese officials at the United Nations, where Mr Johnson's charm kept the show on the road by sheer force of personality.

But there was often frustration at the lack of substance. Foreign envoys would sometimes tell me they couldn't fill their telegrams home simply with jokes written by Boris Johnson.

On one occasion, President Sisi of Egypt simply walked out of a meeting with a rather bemused foreign secretary simply because the conversation did not get beyond the pleasantries.

Above all, Mr Johnson struggled to set out clearly what the government's "global Britain" foreign policy actually meant. His focus on women's education and saving elephants rarely formed part of a bigger picture.

What is Britain's response to the rise of countries such as China and India? What is Britain's thinking on the long term pressures of migration from sub-Saharan Africa, where a demographic explosion is expected in coming decades?

What is the solution to the government's contradictory policy towards the conflict in Yemen, where Britain sells arms to one side, Saudi Arabia, while giving foreign aid to the other, the civilians left injured and hungry by the fighting? What is Britain's approach to issues such as Syria and North Korea?

These are all questions that still require answers. And that is on top of the questions posed by Brexit and Britain's uncertain relationship with an increasingly independent-minded United States led by Donald Trump.

The former Swedish prime minister Carl Bildt tweeted on Monday that Britain "used to be a nation providing leadership to the world - now, it can't even provide leadership to itself".

British diplomats would challenge such a sweeping assertion and cite the way the UK convinced 28 countries to expel 150 Russian diplomats after the Salisbury nerve agent attack as an example of global leadership. But the question remains: what is British foreign policy? And it is a question that Boris Johnson's successor will have to answer.


British Diplomat's Guide to the Balkan Races - History

Recent research from Oxford University shows a wide range of genetic influences throughout the British Isles, hinting at a long history of invasions and settlement by groups from across the European continent throughout history. Now where have we heard that before' Oh, that's right! AncestryDNA ? has seen similar results in the data from our new DNA test. It seems we're on the same page. The Oxford study, conducted by Professors Walter Bodmer, Peter Donnelly and their colleagues, was reported by The Telegraph, London's Sunday Times and other publications. Their study, according to the article, "analysed the differences at 500,000 points in the DNA of 2,000 people" to compose a genetic map of the region. According to Donnelly, only a couple of groups, namely the Cornish and Welsh, have populations that can be genetically characterized as distinctly British. Most other populations in Great Britain show more recent ties to groups such as the Anglo-Saxon Germans, Danish Vikings, and Scandinavians. So what does that mean for a family history researcher' DNA continues to be a source of discovery about our past. Since the new AncestryDNA test is able to tap into over 700,000 locations in your DNA it gives you a broader, more vivid image of who your ancestors were. So if you've taken the new DNA test, you can expect new scientific findings like these to give you a deeper understanding of your results. "The people of this region are a real genetic cocktail," says Donnelly. So, if you hail from the British Isles, don't be shaken if your genetic ethnicity results are decidedly stirred. Now to further illustrate this point, here is an example from our own reference database for this specific region. As you can see, even individuals with deep British pedigrees often have some Scandinavian and Central European ancestry. This pie chart shows the average ancestry estimated for individuals with all four grandparents from England, Ireland, Scotland, or Wales'most of them have great grandparents also from Britain. Read more on the story here: http://ancstry.me/NMR3qz


With that in mind, it is definitely a good idea to get acquainted with the Serbian language before making the move. English can be found fairly frequently across Belgrade, but this isn’t the case further afield. Why should it be? It really does pay to pick up a little bit of basic Serbian if you’re hoping to get the most out of the country.

There are plenty of options for Serbian lessons in Belgrade, be they private or public. Teaching the language is a useful form of secondary income for many, so be sure to check social media groups for someone to help you explore the magnificent srpski jezik.


Tonton videonya: Сопровождение Су-30СМ ракетоносцев Ту-160, выполнивших пуск крылатых ракет над Средиземным морем (Julai 2022).


Komen:

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