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Tarring dan Feathering

Tarring dan Feathering



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Amalan menggunakan tar panas dan lapisan bulu pada lawannya adalah amalan Amerika. Pemakaian tikar pada pakaian saingan itu dianggap sebagai hukuman yang lebih rendah daripada mengenakannya pada kulit telanjang. Hanya beberapa contoh amalan ini dicatat pada tahun 1760-an, tetapi pernyataan Townshend Act menimbulkan peningkatan tajam dalam pemakaiannya. Kejadian lain berlaku di sekitar Undang-Undang Teh pada tahun 1773. Semasa Perang Kemerdekaan, peninggalan Tories berlaku dengan lebih kerap dan ganas, yang mengakibatkan kematian beberapa mangsa.Parut dan bulu adalah amalan biadab dan, sayangnya, ia berkesan satu.


Sejarah Kami Ringkas

Tarring and Feathering adalah amalan Amerika menggunakan tar panas dan lapisan bulu yang digunakan untuk menegakkan bukan keadilan rasmi atau semacam balas dendam. hukuman seperti ini terdiri daripada orang-orang yang diikat ke pinggangnya. Sementara seluruh tubuhnya dilekatkan bersama, tar panas dicurahkan ke seluruh tubuh mangsa, dan inilah bahagian yang menarik dan kejam. Sama ada mereka membuang bulu ke seluruh tubuhnya atau dia terguling di lantai yang penuh dengan bulu.
Hukuman ini adalah mengenai penghinaan terhadap mangsa dan sebelum mereka membawanya di atas keranjang kayu di hadapan semua warganegara, mereka memberi dia kesempatan untuk meminta maaf atas semua tingkah lakunya terhadap tuntutan massa, jika dia tidak meminta maaf dia diusir dari bandar. Jenis hukuman ini tidak pernah menjadi kes rasmi di Amerika Syarikat.

Jenis hukuman ini mempunyai variasi dalam berbagai macam hal, contohnya adalah pada Pemberontakan Irlandia dalam peristiwa ini mereka mencukur kepala korban, mereka membelai dia dan mengembangkan semua bulu ke dalam tubuh korban. Kadang-kadang ia lebih kejam, ketika dia sudah berwarna merah dan semua bulu di tubuhnya, mereka menerangi bulu dan membiarkan bulu membakar dan merosakkan tubuhnya. di Amerika kejadian pertama adalah pada tahun 1776, Kapten William Smith dicurahkan seluruh tubuhnya dalam tar dan bulu dan ditinggalkan di pelabuhan Norfolk, Virginia.

Seorang lagi mangsa hukuman ini adalah John Meintz, dia mempunyai kisah menarik yang melibatkan peninggalan bulu dan bulu. Dalam dua tahun lamanya WWI (Perang Dunia I) beberapa orang memasuki John Meintz sebuah rumah petani Jerman-Amerika kerana mereka menyangka dia tidak setia kepada negaranya. Mereka merogolnya dan memasukkannya ke dalam kereta dan pergi. Semua orang ini menyerangnya, memukulnya, mereka cuba menembaknya, dan akhirnya mencurahkan tubuhnya dengan tar dan bulu. Kesimpulannya Tarring dan Feathering adalah cara bukan hanya untuk penghinaan bahkan untuk membuat orang menderita dan merasa seperti apa-apa dengan cara tertentu.


Mengapa ‘Pohon Liberty’ Menjadi Obsesi Selepas Perang Revolusi

Penjajah berkumpul di bawah Pohon Liberty di Boston, dengan simbol Akta Cap digantung dari dahan sebagai protes.

(Kredit: Arkib Sejarah Sejagat / UIG / Getty Images)

Semasa Marquis de Lafayette mengunjungi Amerika Syarikat pada tahun 1824 dan 1825, terdapat destinasi yang boleh dilewatkan dalam jadual perjalanannya. Kini sudah semakin meningkat usia, jeneral yang dikasihi akan menerima sambutan pahlawan ketika dia melintasi Amerika Syarikat yang telah dia bantu wujudkan. Ini adalah lawatan perpisahan dan anggukan kepada negara yang kini berusia 50 tahun. Dan Marquis tahu betul-betul apa yang ingin dilihatnya di tunggul pokok Boston & # x2014a.

Itu bukan pokok apa pun: Itu adalah simbol kebebasan yang kuat yang mempunyai kepentingan khusus bagi mereka yang mengambil bahagian dalam pemberontakan. Pokok Liberty Boston & # x2019s adalah salah satu daripada berpuluh-puluh, bahkan mungkin ratusan, di seluruh 13 jajahan. Dan mereka tidak terkenal di Amerika Syarikat yang baru: Tumbuhan simboliknya terkenal di seluruh dunia.

Walaupun sebagai tunggul, tempat di mana Boston & # x2019s Liberty Tree pernah berdiri mempunyai kepentingan istimewa. & # x201CDunia tidak boleh melupakan tempat di mana pernah berdiri Pohon Liberty yang begitu terkenal dalam sejarah anda, & # x201D kata Lafayette. Tiga sorakan terdengar ketika kereta miliknya melewati tempat di mana pokok itu pernah berdiri.

Penjajah bertemu di sekitar pokok elm di sudut jalan Essex dan Washington di Boston, Massachusetts.

(Kredit: Arkib Sementara / Getty Images)

Pada abad ke-18, orang sering menggunakan mercu tanda semula jadi seperti pokok sebagai tempat pertemuan, dan pokok-pokok menjadi tempat rujukan penting. Mereka juga memegang kekuatan simbolik: Seperti yang dicatat oleh sejarawan Alfred R. Young, kisah bahasa Inggeris mengandungi banyak kisah mengenai pokok-pokok yang terkait dengan peristiwa politik, dan & # x201Pokok pada umumnya dihormati oleh penjajah. & # X201D

Oleh itu, masuk akal bahawa pokok-pokok sangat penting ketika penjajah itu mula memberontak. Pada tahun 1765, sekumpulan sembilan patriot yang menggelarkan diri mereka sebagai Loyal Nine & # x2014a pendahulu Sons of Liberty & # x2014began untuk merancang penentangan terhadap Stamp Act.

Undang-undang yang dibenci, yang ditadbir oleh pegawai awam bernama Andrew Oliver, mewajibkan penjajah membayar cukai ke atas semua perkara dari surat khabar hingga kad permainan. Ini adalah cukai pertama yang dikenakan ke atas tanah jajahan, dan terasa seperti penghinaan kepada peniaga seperti Loyal Nine. Secara rahsia, mereka merancang satu siri tunjuk perasaan yang akan menjadi tindakan penentangan awam pertama terhadap Mahkota Inggeris.

Mereka memilih pokok elm tua di sudut tempat yang sekarang menjadi Jalan Essex dan Washington sebagai tempat tunjuk perasaan pertama mereka. Pada 14 Ogos 1765, mereka menggantungkan patung Oliver di atas pokok bersama simbol-simbol lain dari Akta Setem. Ketika massa bertambah, mereka memenggal kepala dan membakar simbol tersebut sebelum menuju ke rumah Oliver & # x2019s. Beberapa minggu kemudian, piring tembaga muncul di atas pokok itu, menyatakannya sebagai & # x201CTree of Liberty. & # X201D

Penjajah yang marah sekarang mempunyai suara & # x2014 dan simbol. Mereka mula bertemu secara teratur di bawah pokok, dan kemasyhurannya cepat tersebar ke jajahan lain. Tidak lama kemudian, bandar-bandar sejauh Pulau Rhode dan Maryland telah menamakan pohon kebebasan mereka sendiri.

Pokok mempunyai sepupu: Tiang Liberty. Mereka kurang hiasan daripada pokok, tetapi mempunyai fungsi yang serupa. Dibangun di seluruh wilayah jajahan yang memberontak, tiang-tiang seperti tiang adalah tempat untuk menyiarkan berita luas mengenai kezaliman Mahkota dan berkumpul untuk tunjuk perasaan, ucapan dan pertemuan politik.

& # x201CA Liberty Pole tidak mempunyai akar, & # x201D menulis sejarawan David Hackett Fischer. & # x201CIa boleh dibina di mana sahaja pada masa ini dan dalam pelbagai saiz. & # x201D Sebilangannya lebih tinggi daripada bangunan kolonial & # x2019 bangunan terbesar, tulis Fischer, dan mereka sering menjadi lokasi rusuhan dan persaingan mengenai siapa yang boleh meruntuhkan tiang dan siapa yang boleh mendirikan yang lain.

Warga Boston menetap dan berbulu lelaki, 1775.

(Kredit: Arkib Sejarah Sejagat / UIG / Getty Images)

Sebagai simbol pemberontakan, banyak yang dipertaruhkan ketika datang ke pohon dan tiang ini. Pemerintah kolonial dan tentera Inggeris mengetahuinya, dan menggunakannya untuk keuntungan mereka. Sebagai contoh, pada tahun 1775, tentera Inggeris menghukum Thomas Ditson, seorang petani yang telah berusaha membeli senapan dari seorang askar, dengan menanggalkannya, meletakkan dan membebaskannya, dan memaksanya untuk mengarak melewati Pohon Liberty dengan memakai tanda yang berbunyi, sebahagiannya, & # x201Amerika Liberty (atau Demokrasi) yang dicontohkan dalam Penjahat. & # x201D

Pada masa itu, pokok-pokok kebebasan sangat terkenal sehingga menjadi mercu tanda di dalam diri mereka sendiri. Tetapi kemudian pada tahun 1775, pohon elm Boston yang disayangi, yang berusia hampir 130 tahun, membayar harga untuk kemasyhurannya ketika sekumpulan setia dan tentera Britain merobohkannya.

Para penyokong setia & # x201Membuat serangan marah terhadapnya, & # x201D melaporkan sebuah akhbar tempatan. & # x201CASetelah mantra panjang mengerang, bersumpah, dan berbuih, dengan jahat jahat mereka menebang sebatang pohon kerana menanggung nama & # x2018Liberty. & # x2019 & # x201D Pokok itu menyediakan 14 tali kayu yang digunakan untuk memanaskan bangunan digunakan oleh tentera.

Bertahan sampai akhir, penjajah hanya menamakan semula pokok & # x201CLiberty Stump, & # x201D mendirikan tiang di sana, dan terus menghormatinya. Pokok kebebasan lain bertemu dengan nasib yang lebih bahagia dan bertahan hingga abad ke-20 New York & # x2019s hanya ditebang pada tahun 1999, dan sebatang pokok di Annapolis dipulihkan menggunakan cantuman dan penanaman anak benih baru.

Walaupun selepas revolusi, pokok kebebasan tetap menjadi simbol kuat kekuatan pemberontakan dan protes masyarakat. Ketika revolusi meletus di Perancis pada tahun 1789, para revolusioner mulai menamakan dan menanam pohon kebebasan mereka sendiri, dan kebiasaan itu juga muncul di Itali dan Jerman.

Apa yang bermula sebagai tempat pertemuan yang sederhana telah menjadi tradisi yang memberi inspirasi seperti yang terkenal.


Kandungan Berkaitan

Tarring and feathering & # 039 komuniti bukti tidak percaya pada PSNI & # 039

UDA memberitahu orang-orang yang mahu tindakan diambil terhadap pengedar dadah untuk pergi ke polis, itu dituduh malam tadi.

Kemarahan sebagai lelaki berbaju dan berbulu

UDA hari ini disalahkan atas kebodohan dan bulu lelaki Belfast dalam serangan yang mengingatkan pada hari-hari kegelapan dari Masalah.

Sudut Pandang: Peraturan Mob tidak dapat dipertikaikan

Mengejutkan, menjijikkan dan tidak dapat dipertikaikan. Itu akan menjadi reaksi terhadap kembalinya apa yang disebut tarring dan bulu ke jalan-jalan di Belfast.

Tarring and feathering: gema memalukan masa lalu kita

Ini adalah gambar yang mengejutkan yang menunjukkan seorang Belfastman diikat pada tiang lampu sebelum dia terpijak dan dibalut oleh dua lelaki bertudung dalam serangan hukuman yang mengerikan.


Perbarisan Terburuk yang Pernah Memukul Jalan Boston

Kisah ini dipetik dari buku Nathaniel Philbrick yang akan datang Bunker Hill: Sebuah Bandar, Pengepungan, Revolusi, tersedia untuk pra-pesanan sekarang dan di kedai pada 30 April 2013.

Dari Kisah Ini

VIDEO: Bunker Hill oleh Nathaniel Philbrick - Trailer Buku Rasmi

Boston selalu menjadi bandar berjinjit. Hanya seluas satu mil persegi, dengan hanya sebidang tanah yang menghubungkannya ke daratan ke selatan, pulau berbentuk berudu ini didominasi oleh tiga bukit yang menjulang tinggi, menetap ringan dan hutan menara maya. Dari kedudukan tertinggi Boston & # 8217s, Beacon Hill setinggi 138 kaki, dapat dilihat bahawa bandar itu hanya satu di kawasan amfiteater besar dari pulau-pulau bonggol dan bergerigi yang membentang lebih dari lapan setengah batu ke Point Allerton di tenggara. Sama ada dari bukit, menara, atau kubah, orang Boston dengan jelas dapat melihat bahawa mereka dikelilingi oleh dua padang belantara yang dalam dan tidak berkesudahan: lautan di sebelah timur dan negara di sebelah barat.

Topografi Boston & # 8217s menyumbang kepada corak jalanan yang kelihatan tidak masuk akal. Alih-alih mengikuti jejak yang diprediksi, jalan setapak dan jalan kereta api yang asli telah melakukan yang terbaik untuk merundingkan banyak bukit dan lubang, memotong lereng pada sudut beransur-ansur untuk membuat bulan sabit cekung di mana lebih dari lima puluh dermaga dan galangan kapal dilanjutkan dari pinggir timur bandar & # 8217. & # 160

Pada musim sejuk, kota bukit ini muncul & # 8212 sekurang-kurangnya jika anda masih kecil. & # 160 Jalan raya yang biasanya penuh sesak dengan orang, kuda, kereta lembu, dan kereta kuda menjadi, berkat salji salji dan ais, jejak pelayaran yang ajaib di mana seorang anak muda di kereta luncur kayunya dapat berlumba dengan kecepatan yang mengagumkan dan indah. Pada 25 Januari 1774, terdapat sekurang-kurangnya dua salji yang menutupi Boston. Kereta luncur yang dilengkapi pelari meluncur melintasi jalan-jalan yang pernah dilalui oleh kereta dan jongkong, bergerak dengan senyap melintasi lorong-lorong putih sehingga loceng yang berderak ditambahkan ke halangan kuda & # 8217 sehingga orang-orang Boston dapat mendengar mereka datang. Kanak-kanak lelaki di kereta luncur mereka tidak mempunyai kemewahan ini, dan pada petang itu seorang kanak-kanak yang menghampiri akhir Bukit Copp & # 8217s di North End membanting pegawai kastam berusia 50 tahun John Malcom & # 8212 paling tidak, menurut satu akaun. Satu lagi kisah Malcom bertengkar dengan anak lelaki itu ketika anak itu mengadu bahawa Malcom telah merosakkan larian pelayaran yang melewati pintu depannya dengan melemparkan cip kayu ke atas salji.

Malcom, seperti yang disarankan olehnya sebagai ejen kastam, adalah seorang yang setia, dia juga mempunyai reputasi kerana hilang sabar. Menaikkan tongkatnya ke udara seolah-olah memukul budak lelaki itu, dia berteriak, & # 8220Tahukah kamu berbicara denganku dengan gaya itu, kamu bajingan! & # 8221 Ketika itulah George Hewes, seorang pembuat kasut, datang ke atas mereka berdiri di mulut Jalan Cross.

Hewes baru-baru ini mengambil bahagian dalam Pesta Teh dan dikenali sebagai patriot. Tetapi pada ketika ini, kepercayaan politik tidak begitu memprihatinkannya, dia bimbang Malcom mungkin akan mencederakan budak yang tidak berdaya itu dan menyuruhnya meninggalkan anak itu sendirian.

Malcom berpaling kepada Hewes dan menuduhnya sebagai & # 8220vagabond & # 8221 yang tidak boleh menganggap bercakap dengan lelaki seperti dirinya. Selain memerintah sejumlah kapal pesisir, Malcom pernah bertugas sebagai pegawai dalam beberapa kempen selama Perang Perancis dan India, dia juga berperang baru-baru ini dalam apa yang dikenal sebagai Perang Peraturan di North Carolina, di mana dia & # 8217d membantu Gabenor Diraja Tyrone secara brutal menekan pemberontakan warga yang menentang sistem percukaian yang kemudian berlaku di wilayah Selatan ini. Malcom mengaku telah menembak dua ekor kuda dari bawahnya di North Carolina dan kemudian menulis dalam petisyen kepada raja bahawa & # 8220 tidak ada yang bisa melangkah lebih jauh di medan pertempuran ketika peluru terbang paling tebal, dia kemudian berada di elemennya. & # 8221

Kecintaan terhadap pertempuran Malcom baru-baru ini menjadikannya menghadapi masalah profesional yang serius. Pada awal musim gugur itu, ketika bertugas di pejabat kastam di Falmouth (sekarang Portland), Maine, dia merampas kapal dan kru 30 orangnya dengan dalih paling tipis. Sikap sombong dan sombongnya telah membuat marah pelaut sehingga mereka & # 8217d melucutkan senjata dari pedangnya dan memberinya jas tar dan bulu & # 8220genteel & # 8221 & # 8212genteel kerana mereka & # 8217d meninggalkan pakaiannya untuk melindungi kulitnya dari tar panas. Malcom telah dihina tetapi nampaknya tidak terluka, dan bahkan pegawai atasannya di pejabat kastam tidak sedikit simpati kepadanya. Menjelang hari bersalji pada bulan Januari, Malcom kembali ke rumah di Boston dan berdebat dengan bukan sahaja seorang lelaki bermuka masam dengan kereta luncur tetapi juga pembuat kasut ini.

Hewes tidak terkesan dengan dakwaan keunggulan sosial Malcom & # 8217, terutama mengingat apa yang telah berlaku kepada ejen kastam di Maine, sebuah kisah yang telah diulang dengan sangat gembira di banyak akhbar di Boston & # 8217s. & # 8220Jadi sesuka hati, & # 8221 Hewes membalas teguran Malcom & # 8217, & # 8220Saya tidak pernah terpalit dan berbulu. & # 8221

Ini terlalu banyak bagi Malcom, yang mengambil tongkatnya dan menghancurkan kepala Hewes, merobek celah dua inci di topinya dan membuatnya tidak sedar. Ketika Hewes sadar, seorang Kapten Godfrey menasihati Malcom, yang segera memutuskan bahawa adalah kepentingan terbaiknya untuk mengundurkan diri ke rumahnya di Cross Street.

Semua berita mengenai kejadian itu tersebar di jalan-jalan di Boston. Menjelang pukul lapan & # 8217 pada waktu petang, orang ramai yang marah telah berkumpul di luar rumah Malcom & # 8217. Pada masa itu Hewes telah mengunjungi Dr. Joseph Warren, tepat di seberang Mill Bridge di Hanover Street yang berdekatan. Baik doktor dan saudara jauh, Warren telah memberitahunya bahawa jika ia tidak mempunyai tengkoraknya yang sangat tebal, Hewes akan menjadi orang mati. Atas nasihat Warren, dia mengajukan permohonan kepada pegawai bandar untuk mendapatkan waran penangkapan Malcom, tetapi sekarang kelihatan seperti keadilan yang akan dijatuhkan.

Pada awal malam, Malcom telah bersenang-senang dalam memikat orang ramai, dengan sombong bahawa Gabenor Hutchinson akan membayarnya sejumlah 20 pound sterling untuk setiap & # 8220yankee & # 8221 yang dibunuhnya. Isterinya yang tidak sabar, ibu dari lima anak (dua daripadanya pekak), membuka tingkap dan memohon kepada penduduk kota untuk membiarkan mereka sendirian. Segala rasa simpati yang berjaya diperolehnya segera lenyap ketika Malcom mendorong pedangnya yang tidak terpendam melalui tingkap dan menikam seorang lelaki di tulang dada. & # 160

Orang ramai mengerumuni rumah, memecahkan tingkap dan berusaha menemui pegawai kastam, yang segera melarikan diri dari tangga menuju cerita kedua. Ramai orang Boston berkhidmat sebagai anggota bomba sukarela, dan tidak lama sebelum lelaki yang dilengkapi tangga dan kapak bergegas menuju rumah yang dikepung di Cross Street. Malah Malcom nampaknya menyedari bahawa perkara-perkara telah berubah serius, dan dia bersedia & # 8220 untuk membuat pembelaan apa yang dia dapat. & # 8221

Keganasan kolektif telah menjadi bahagian lama kolonial New England. Orang ramai cenderung campur tangan ketika pegawai kerajaan bertindak menentang kepentingan rakyat. Pada tahun 1745, rusuhan meletus di Boston ketika sebuah geng akhbar tentera laut merampas beberapa pelaut tempatan. Dua puluh tiga tahun kemudian, kemarahan atas kemerosotan kumpulan media lain turut menyumbang kepada Kebebasan Rusuhan tahun 1768, dicetuskan oleh penyitaan kapal John Hancock & # 8217 dengan nama yang sama oleh pegawai kastam Boston. Oleh kerana orang ramai berupaya mengatasi kesalahan yang tidak dapat ditanggung yang dilakukan terhadap masyarakat, mereka adalah institusi yang diakui bahawa semua warga Boston tidak kira betapa kaya dan berpengaruh mereka mungkin & # 8212 direka dengan bahaya mereka. Pada 26 Ogos 1765, ketika kemarahan atas Undang-Undang Cap melanda jajahan, sekumpulan beberapa ratus orang Boston menyerang kediaman Leftenan Gabenor Thomas Hutchinson, memecahkan tingkap, memukul pintu, dan menggeledah rumah perabotnya yang rumit. Tetapi ketika John Malcom hendak mengetahui pada malam yang dingin pada Januari 1774, dan ketika Thomas Hutchison telah belajar hampir satu dekad sebelumnya, jurang antara orang ramai yang berfikiran sipil dan massa yang tidak teratur dan pendendam sangat tipis.

Bukit Bunker: Sebuah Bandar, Pengepungan, Revolusi tersedia untuk pra-pesanan sekarang dan di kedai pada 30 April 2013. (Stuart Krichevsky Literary Agency, Inc.) Boston pada tahun 1774, di mana taat setia John Malcom berbulu dan berbulu. ((c) 2013 Jeffrey L. Ward. Dengan hormatnya Viking.) Penggambaran seorang artis mengenai peninggalan dan bulu John Malcom di Boston. (Koleksi Granger, NYC)

Malcom dan keluarganya berkumpul di tingkat dua kediaman mereka. Pintu terkunci berdiri di antara mereka dan orang ramai yang marah di bawah. Mereka mendengar bunyi tangga di tepi rumah dan tangisan lelaki dan budak lelaki ketika mereka naik ke tingkap tingkat dua dan menumbuk kaca. Ketika itulah Mr. Russell, & # 8221 barangkali William Russell, seorang pengantar (atau pembantu mengajar) di sebuah sekolah di Hanover Street, muncul di dalam rumah. Sambil tersenyum lebar, dia meyakinkan Malcom bahawa dia berteman dan menjabat tangan pegawai kastam. Dia kemudian bertanya adakah dia dapat melihat pedang Malcom & # 8217s. Putus asa untuk mendapatkan bantuan apa pun yang dia dapat, Malcom dengan enggan menyerahkan senjata itu, hanya untuk memerhatikan ketika Russell (yang, jika dia memang William Russell, telah berpartisipasi dalam Pesta Teh) memanggil orang lain di rumah bahawa Malcom sekarang tidak bersenjata . & # 8220Mereka segera bergegas masuk, & # 8221 Malcom menulis, & # 8220dan dengan kekerasan memaksa peringatan anda keluar dari rumah dan memukulnya dengan tongkat kemudian meletakkannya di kereta luncur yang telah mereka siapkan. & # 8221 Seseorang hanya boleh bertanya-tanya apa yang Mrs. Malcom dan anak-anak lelaki dan perempuannya berfikir ketika mereka melihatnya menghilang ke jalan-jalan Boston yang tidak terang.

Setelah berhenti di dermaga berdekatan untuk mengambil tong tong (pada suatu ketika, bantal yang dipenuhi, mungkin diambil dari rumah Malcom & # 8217, juga dikumpulkan), orang ramai, yang kini berjumlah lebih dari seribu orang, mengangkut Malcom melalui jalan-jalan bersalju ke pusat kota, di mana setelah tiga & # 8220Huzzas, & # 8221 mereka memuatkannya ke dalam kereta yang diparkir di depan Rumah Kastam. Hampir empat tahun sebelumnya, ini adalah lokasi Pembantaian Boston, dan akibatnya bangunan itu sekarang disebut sebagai Balai Buta & # 8217. Kebakaran unggun api biasa terjadi di bahagian King Street ini, sebuah ruang seperti alun-alun seluas 60 kaki di depan Dewan Bandaran yang diaspal dengan kerang laut dan kerikil di mana stok dan pos cambuk juga berada. Salah satu kebakaran ini mungkin digunakan untuk memanaskan tar pinus yang kaku dan lumpur (penyulingan bahan bitumen yang menggelegak dari pohon pinus yang membara) ke dalam pasta hitam yang dapat dicurahkan.

Ia adalah salah satu malam paling getir tahun ini. Boston Harbour telah sejuk selama dua malam sebelumnya. Malcom sudah pasti gemetar dengan kedinginan dan ketakutan, tetapi ini tidak menghalang orang ramai untuk merobek pakaiannya (melucutkan lengannya dalam prosesnya) dan mencelupkan kulitnya dengan tar yang mengukus yang akan berkesan merosakkan dagingnya. Sebaik sahaja bulu itu ditambahkan, Malcom mengenakan pakaian yang dikenal pada masa itu sebagai & # 8220 jaket moden & # 8221: pengumuman yang menyakitkan dan memalukan kepada dunia bahawa dia telah berdosa terhadap kekejaman kolektif masyarakat. Tarring dan feathering kembali berabad-abad lamanya hingga masa perang salib, ia juga diterapkan pada patung-patung yang digunakan semasa Paus Night beberapa orang setia Boston sebelum dia ditaburkan dan berbulu, tetapi tidak ada yang dapat mendakwa tahap penderitaan yang hendak ditanggung oleh Malcom.

Tidak lama kemudian orang ramai mula mendorong kereta Malcom ke King Street ke arah Town House, bangunan bata di atas kubah yang dihiasi dengan meterai raja & # 8217 yang merupakan rumah perundangan jajahan & # 8217. Setelah melewati Town House, mereka menoleh ke kiri ke jalan raya utama Boston & # 8217, yang dikenali di bahagian bandar ini sebagai Cornhill. Dengan bangunan bata tiga tingkat di Mesyuarat Kongregasi pertama Boston & # 8217, yang disebut sebagai Mesyuarat Lama, di sebelah kanan mereka, mereka melalui jalan bangunan yang penuh sesak dengan ketinggian yang berbeza-beza. Lampu menyala di tingkap ketika mereka melintas, orang ramai berteriak dan bersiul mencuci di seberang bata dan papan klap dan bergema ke bukit di sebelah kanan, di mana rumah almouse, tempat suci untuk & # 8220disorder dan tidak siuman, & # 8221 rumah kerja, dan lumbung menghadap kawasan seluas 45 ekar.

Cornhill menjadi Jalan Marlborough pada saat mereka sampai di blok yang berisi kediaman rasmi gabenor, House House. Di atas kubah struktur bata tiga tingkat yang megah ini adalah lorong cuaca tembaga yang menggambarkan seorang India dengan anak panah di busurnya. Ketika angin dari timur, Province House Indian sepertinya mengarahkan ke arah cuaca yang lebih tinggi di puncak Rumah Mesyuarat Lama Selatan tepat di seberang jalan. Orang ramai berhenti di antara dua bangunan yang melambung tinggi ini dan memerintahkan Malcom untuk mengutuk Gabenor Hutchinson (yang selamat dikurung di rumah negaranya yang berjarak sepuluh batu di Milton pada malam itu) dan & # 8220 dia mengatakan bahawa dia adalah musuh bagi negaranya. & # 8221 Malcom dengan tegas menolak .

Ketika mereka melintasi kegelapan yang membeku, roda kereta & # 8217 sedang merayap di salji. Mereka sekarang berada di tengah-tengah South End, kawasan bandar yang lebih makmur, di mana Marlborough berubah menjadi Newbury Street. Di sudut Essex di sebelah kiri mereka, mereka berhenti di elm tua besar yang dikenali sebagai Pohon Liberty. Seorang kakitangan bangkit dari bahagian paling atas batang pokok & bendera yang sering dikibarkan bendera. Di sinilah tunjuk perasaan pertama menentang Akta Setem diadakan pada tahun 1765, dan pada tahun-tahun sejak itu, Pohon Liberty telah menjadi semacam kuil druidikal, khas Amerika terhadap kebebasan manusia yang wujud dan rasa Pencerahan & # 8220 keadaan semula jadi & # 8221 yang wujud sebelum rakyat rela tunduk pada perintah pemerintah yang mereka pilih.

Pada malam yang dingin ini, orang-orang di Boston mengarahkan kemarahan mereka terhadap seorang lelaki yang dengan tegas, bahkan secara fanatik menegaskan bahawa mereka harus tunduk kepada raja yang jauh dan badan perundangan yang tidak lagi menghormati hak yang diberikan oleh Tuhan mereka, bahawa ketaatan harus dibayar bukan hanya untuk raja yang berkuasa mereka tetapi untuk lelaki seperti John Malcom: seorang pahit dan paham yang dunianya runtuh di bawahnya. Malcom berdiri di dalam troli di bawah pohon dan dahan musim sejuk yang kosong dan sekali lagi enggan mengutuk gabenor.

Mereka terus menyusuri Newbury ke mana ia menjadi Orange Street. Tidak lama kemudian mereka menghampiri gerbang bandar di Boston Neck, lebih dari satu mil dari Town House. Benteng batu bata lama bermula dari Perang Raja Philip, ketika Boston telah menjadi tempat perlindungan bagi mereka yang cuba melarikan diri dari orang India, dan setelah melalui pintu gerbang, mereka keluar ke helai tipis bumi yang dicuci gelombang yang menghubungkan Boston dengan bandar Roxbury. Di kedua-dua sisi mereka, rawa-rawa dan cetek yang berais meluas ke dalam kegelapan. Di sebelah kiri, tepat setelah pintu pagar terdapat tiang gantungan.

Mereka meletakkan tali di leher Malcom dan mengancam akan menggantungnya jika dia tidak akan melakukan seperti yang mereka pesan sebelumnya. Pada masa ini tar telah membeku menjadi kerak beku inti dalam badannya mungkin menjadi sangat sejuk sehingga dia tidak lagi mampu menggeletar. & # 160Sekali lagi, dia enggan mengutuk gabenor, tetapi kali ini dia meminta agar mereka & # 8220menghukumkan ancaman mereka ke dalam pelaksanaan daripada meneruskan penyeksaan mereka. & # 8221

Mereka melepaskan tali leher Malcom & # 8217, menyepit tangan di belakang punggungnya dan mengikatnya ke tiang gantung. Kemudian mereka mula memukulnya dengan tali dan tongkat & # 8220 dengan cara yang paling biadab. & # 8221 Menurut satu kisah mereka bahkan mengancam akan memotong telinganya. Akhirnya, dia mengatakan bahawa dia akan melakukan & # 8220 apa sahaja yang mereka inginkan. & # 8221 Mereka melepaskannya dan membuatnya memaki hamun gabenor dan dewan komisaris Bea Cukai. Tetapi penderitaannya tidak berakhir.

Selama beberapa jam mereka terus mengarak Malcom melalui jalan-jalan di Boston. Tidak semua orang turut serta dalam kerumunan orang yang menggembirakan menyenangkan beberapa orang, termasuk lelaki yang campur tangannya telah memulakan penggabungan peristiwa yang mengerikan ini, pembuat kasut George Hewes, begitu terkejut dengan perlakuan Malcom sehingga mereka berusaha menutupinya dengan jaket mereka. & # 160

Pada saat orang ramai sampai di Bukit Copp dekat rumah Malcom di North End, dia pasti sudah pingsan, kerana dia tidak menyebut mengenai perhentian terakhir ini, yang dijelaskan dalam beberapa akaun surat khabar. Di sini, di tanah perkuburan berhampiran puncak bukit, terdapat makam adik lelaki Malcom & # 8217s Daniel. Daniel nampaknya mempunyai keperibadian yang sama dengan saudaranya. Walaupun John menjadi ejen kastam, Daniel berpihak kepada kem yang lebih popular dan sebaliknya, yang terkenal melarang dirinya di & # 160& # 160nyarumah pada tahun 1766 untuk mengelakkan ejen mahkota mencari wain seludup yang sepatutnya disembunyikannya di bilik bawah tanahnya. Ketika Daniel meninggal pada tahun 1769 pada usia 44 tahun, dia adalah pahlawan patriot, dan tulisan di batu nisannya menggambarkannya sebagai & # 8220a anak Liberty sejati / Sahabat kepada Publick / musuh untuk penindasan / dan salah satu yang paling utama / dalam menentang Akta Hasil / ke atas Amerika. & # 8221

Daniel telah diraikan kerana melanggar undang-undang pada zamannya. Malam itu pada bulan Januari 1774, saudara lelakinya yang setia John duduk tergelincir di kerusi yang diletakkan seseorang di dalam kereta. Memang benar bahawa dia menjengkelkan dan impulsif, bahawa dia hampir mengundang rawatan yang dia & # 8217d terima. Tetapi hakikatnya bahawa & # 8220 musuh rakyat & # 8221 ini telah dibakar, dibekukan, dan dipukul hingga dalam satu inci dari hidupnya bukan kerana dia & # 8217d melakukan sapu pada pembuat kasut tetapi kerana dia menjunjung undang-undang yang tidak disukai oleh saudaranya telah mencerca. Itu adalah kekerasan, bahkan kekerasan, tetapi orang-orang Boston telah berbicara.

Sekitar tengah malam, orang ramai akhirnya kembali ke rumah Malcom di Cross Street, di mana dia & # 8220 keluar dari kereta seperti balak. & # 8221 Setelah dia dibawa pulang ke rumah dan badannya yang beku telah mulai mencair, dagingnya yang sudah pucat mulai terkelupas di & # 8220steaks. & # 8221 Walaupun entah bagaimana dia menemukan kekuatan untuk membuat pemendapan lima hari kemudian, ia akan memerlukan lapan minggu lagi sebelum dia dapat meninggalkan tempat tidurnya.

Pada akhir tahun itu, Malcolm berlayar ke London dengan harapan dapat memperoleh pampasan atas apa yang dideritanya di tangan massa Boston. & # 160 Selain petisyen terperinci, dia membawa sebuah kotak kayu yang mengandungi piala utama: sepotong layu dari dagingnya yang berbulu dan berbulu.

Pada 12 Januari 1775, dia menghadiri leve di St. James & # 8217s, di mana dia berlutut di hadapan Raja George III dan menyerahkan petisyen kepada baginda. Apa yang diinginkan oleh Malcom daripada yang lain, dia memberitahu raja, adalah kembali ke Boston dan meneruskan tugasnya sebagai pegawai kastam & # 8212 tetapi tidak hanya sebagai pegawai kastam mana pun. & # 160 Tar & # 8230untuk saya suka baunya. & # 8221

Dari buku & # 160Bukit Bunker: Sebuah Bandar, Pengepungan, Revolusi& # 160 oleh Nathaniel Philbrick yang akan diterbitkan akhir bulan ini oleh Viking. Hak Cipta & # 169 2013 oleh Nathaniel Philbrick


Seperti apa Tarring dan Feathering abad ke-20

Foto-foto ini merakam nasib petani Jerman-Amerika John Meints, yang ditaburkan dan berbulu pada malam 19 Ogos 1918 di Luverne, Minn., Kerana disyaki tidak cukup setia kepada Amerika Syarikat. Seperti beberapa orang Jerman-Amerika lain yang diancam semasa perang, dia telah menolak untuk mengambil bahagian dalam ikatan perang demi kepuasan jirannya. (Tidak seperti pelombong Robert Prager, yang dihancurkan di Collinsville, Illinois, pada tahun 1918, Meints melarikan diri dengan nyawanya.) *

Amalan berjaga-jaga ini mungkin paling sering dikaitkan dengan Revolusi Amerika, ketika para patriot menyayangi dan berbakti kepada pegawai dan loyalis Britain. Sejarawan Benjamin H. Irvin menulis bahawa penundaan-dan-bulu menjadi sangat popular semasa konflik sehingga penjajah mengembangkan beberapa variasi yang berbeza pada praktik ini. Kadang-kadang mereka harta benda berbulu dan berbulu daripada orang, atau, untuk satu kelompok wanita, menggunakan molase dan "puncak bendera yang turun di padang rumput" (mungkin bulu susu) sebagai simbolik.

Kumpulan yang menculik Meints dari kediamannya pada tahun 1918, mengantarnya ke perbatasan South Dakota-Minnesota, memukulnya, memakai tar dan bulu, dan memerintahkannya keluar dari negara, mungkin telah menggunakan amalan ini sebagai rujukan eksplisit kepada Revolusi tempoh.

Berarti, tidak rela membiarkan kemarahan ini tergelincir, menamakan dan menyaman 32 pelaku. (He submitted these photographs as evidence in his case.) He asked for $100,000 in damages, but his case was dismissed. The Minneapolis Tribune reported that Judge Wilbur F. Booth told the jury before its deliberations:

Indeed, when the defendants returned to Luverne, the Tribune reported, the whole town turned out to celebrate.

Meints appealed, and eventually settled out of court for $6,000.

Twentieth-century tarring and feathering persisted in isolated pockets in the United States, with the KKK amongst its enthusiasts. And in France, some women suspected of fraternizing with German soldiers were subjected to the practice upon liberation.

National Archives, Records of the District Courts of the United States.

National Archives, Records of the District Courts of the United States.

*Correction, June 11, 2018: This post originally misstated that Prager was lynched in St. Louis. It was in Collinsville, Illinois.


The Tarring and Feathering of Joseph Smith

Tar and Feathers

It was sometime in the wee hours of the morning of March 25, 1832, when an infuriated mob exploded through the door of the summer kitchen of the John Johnson home in Hiram, Ohio. They pounced on 26 year-old Joseph Smith Jr. and began carrying him out the door. It all happened so fast Joseph was on the stoop before he came awake. Struggling, he freed one leg and kicked one of the mobbers in the face, sending him sprawling. The man jumped to his feet and with his hands all covered in his own blood, grabbed Joseph by the throat and choked him until he lost consciousness.

When Joseph revived he saw his friend and counselor, Sidney Rigdon stretched out unmoving on the cold ground. Supposing that Sidney was dead, Joseph asked the mob for mercy. They cursed and swore, “Call on yer God for help,” they said, “We’ll show you no mercy!”

Men seemed to come from everywhere and join the fray. Would they kill him or just rough him up. The decision was made to hurt him, and to that end they proceeded. Tearing off all his clothes but his shirt collar they beat, kicked, and scratched him. One man fell on Joseph like a mad cat and scratched his body with his nails, crying as he did, “That’s the way the Holy Ghost falls on folks.”

Someone brought forward a bucket of hot tar which they then smeared over Joseph’s lacerated body, at the same time trying to force the tar paddle into his mouth. He resisted. They tried to force a vial of poison in his mouth—aquafortis, or nitric acid. Again he clenched his jaw and fought back. Had they succeeded the poison would have burned his throat ruined his voice, and probably killed him. As it was, they succeeded only in knocking out one of his teeth, and spilling the acid over his skin, severely burning him.

How bad was this attack? They tore out a patch of his hair by the roots that never grew back. They injured his side in such a way that it pained him the rest of his life and–they killed him. Joseph would later describe standing above his body and watching as the mob beat him and poured the acid over his face and neck.

Then a noise was heard and the mob fled in fear leaving Joseph upon the ground. Slowly, he regained consciousness. He tried to sit up but couldn’t. Unable to breathe, he pulled the tar from his mouth. After a time, he made his way home. Emma stood in the doorway and fainted at the sight of him. Joseph asked for a blanket for cover and went inside by the fire. His friends spent the night peeling and scraping the tar from his body, sometimes taking off layers of skin with it.

It made a lasting impression on mobbers and members alike when the next morning, the Sabbath, Joseph stood and meekly preached a sermon, following which, he baptized three people. About a week later, in obedience to revelation, Joseph set out for an extended visit to Missouri. He would not give up.

Why the mob? What was it that had so infuriated the locals that ministers, doctors, and former friends would join a mob to kill Joseph, or at least silence him. There were many reasons, chief of which was a new revelation Joseph and Sidney had received the month before– the three degrees of glory—Doctrine and Covenants 76, The Vision! Light and truth stir up darkness. It has ever been that way, and it still is. Don’t expect anything different and don’t give up. Endure to the end!

10 Responses

I want to know more about John Johnson and his family. Only his name can be found. Who was his wife, his children, etc. did he move on with the saints? My maiden name is Johnson. My roots stop at generation 5. His name was John Johnson, but no one in the family know anything about him. My grandfather and his siblings were raised not to drink coffee or tea and to abstain from tobacco products. My uncle, a professor at Purdue at the time, pointed out to my great aunts that it sounded like the Mormon religion. But I cannot find anything out.

Kate,
I would recommend getting in touch with the folks at the Church History library in Salt Lake. They could refer you to someone that can track the family history or one of their historians. I know that Luke Johnson came west in 1847 with the Vanguard Company and Brigham Young. He became a bishop in Tooele. His sister, Marinda Johnson was married to Orson Hyde and also came west. As far as I know the rest of the family became disaffected and remained behind. I believe John Johnson himself is buried in the small cemetery next to the Kirtland Temple.

this left me crying. I have to fulfil my baptismal vows and attend church meetings no matter how sick I am.


How did tarred and feathered people get the tar and feathers off?

Tarring and Feathering, as you might suspect, was an incredibly unpleasant experience, and the same could be said for the reverse too. The removal, and how painful or hard it might be, depended heavily on how the tar was applied in the first place.

The best case scenario for someone submitted to this painful and humiliating chariavari was that they would be subjected to it while still clothed, and with tar straight from the barrel (it ought to be pointed out that this is pine tar, not the kind of tar they use for asphalt. The former doesn't need to be nearly as hot for application as the latter would!). Similar to being clothed, a victim might be wrapped in a sheet, similarly offering protection from the tar, but also making them essentially immobile for the time. If unclothed, the tar of course would be stuck right to the skin. And if heated up, burning and blistering of the skin would only add to the pain as well, although this was reserved for few cases. Many persons might receive something of a mixed treatment, stripped to the waist but tar applied over their pants, at least, although it was surely little comfort in the moment. Another way to add to the pain -both of application and removal - was the beating of mutilation of the victim, such as Thomas Foster, who was tarred by a mob in Natchez, but not before being partially scalped and the tar poured over the wound.

To remove the tar was basically a matter of solvents and elbow grease. Turpentine could help to break down the tar - but was itself quite painful once it touched the effected area of skin - but the victims would, in the end, just need a lot of scrubbing with an abrasive from friends or family (removal would need to take place well away from the crowd though. A doctor who came to aid a tarred Tory in 1777 only earned the wrath of the crowd, and was himself then targeted), taking off the tar along with body hair and often layers of skin too. This photo (not for the squeemish) comes from a 20th century tarring, of a German-American seen as unsupportive of WWI, and provides an idea of the after-effects. A condition known as 'tar acne' would often remain afterwards on the skin. To be sure, tarring and feathering itself wasn't fatal. The Mormon leader Joseph Smith, subjected to a tarring, one which he was able to nevertheless walk away from and reach home where he spoke briefly of the removal:

My friends spent the night in scraping and removing the tar, and washing and cleansing my body so that by morning I was ready to be clothed again. [. ] With my flesh all scarified and defaced, I preached to the congregation as usual.

Clearly, it had left him a painful reminder of that night, but by his account, not even incapacitated him for a day. A similar result, recounted by Dr. James Carnahan of a 1794 treatment of a Deputy Inspector named John Lyn recounts that:

[Lyn] was left tied to a tree so loosely that he could easily extricate himself. He returned to his house, and after undergoing an ablution with grease and soap and sand and water, he exhibited himself to the boys in the Academy and others, and laughed and made sport of the whole matter.

Tar, even when applied hot, would burn the skin but wasn't enough to kill. This isn't to say that it wasn't accompanied by other behavior though, which increased the pain and damage at the very least.

Although it seems to have been incredibly rare, a particularly vengeful crowd might "assist" in the removal. by lighting the tar aflame, which occurred in Boston to a man named Richard Owen, but again, this wasn't common. Other acts of violence happened too though. The aforementioned surgeon reportedly had his eyes gouged by the crowd too. More commonly, the crowd would parade the victim around though, sometimes for hours, which while not quite as vengeful looking, nevertheless insured that the tar had plenty of time to set (especially in cold weather), which would at the very least add to the pain of removal. One such description of this, from Boston in 1774, recounts:

But the most shocking cruelty was exercised a few Nights ago, upon a poor Old Man a Tidesman one Malcolm he is reckond creasy, a quarrel was pickd wth him, he was afterward taken, & Tarrd, & featherd. Theres no Law that Knows a punishment for the greatest Crimes beyond what this is, of cruel torture. And this instance exceeds any other before it he was stript Stark naked, one of the severest cold nights this Winter, his body coverd all over with Tar, then with feathers, his arm dislocated in tearing off his cloaths, he was dragd in a Cart with thousands attending, some beating him wth clubs & Knocking him out of the Cart, then in again. They gave him several severe whipings, at different parts of the Town. This Spectacle of horror & sportive cruelty was exhibited for about five hours.

Again, though, it ought to be pointed out tarring wasn't fatal, and Malcom's treatment was some of the worst. The purpose was punishment of transgressions - in the Revolutionary era, often Toryism, and later often used for violations of ɼommunity standards' - and the humiliation was, more than anything, what was aimed for. I bring this up to mention one more "tarring" and feathering, one which was probably the least painful of all, which Irvin notes in his essay, where a group of women decided to punish a young man who had interrupted their quilting, not with tar, but with molasses. It still served the same aim, the man's humiliation, but it was decidedly the easiest clean-up of anything else here.

So in short, removal depended greatly on how you were tarred. If you were lucky to remain clothed, the biggest pain might very well have been to your pride, while on the other end, someone stripped, given hot tar, and paraded for hours would likely have a very painful night, and a long, painful recovery afterwards.

Hersey, Frank W. C. “Tar and Feathers: The Adventures of Captain John Malcolm,” Colonial Society of Massachusetts Publications, Vol. 34 (1941), 429-73.

Irvin, Benjamin H. "Tar, Feathers, and the Enemies of American Liberties, 1768-1776." The New England Quarterly 76, no. 2 (2003): 197-238.

John Meints, Punished during World War I. ca 1917-1918. John Meints v. O.R. Huntington, Et. Al, 1917 - 1918 Law Case Files, 1898 - 1938 Record Group 21: Records of District Courts of the United States, 1685 - 2009, National Archives at Kansas City, Kansas City.

Levy, Barry. "Tar and Feathers" Journal of the Historical Society 11 no. 1 (2011) 85-110.

Smith, Joseph. History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (2014)

Ward, Townsend. "The Insurrection of the Year 1794 in the Western Counties of Pennsylvania" Memoirs Of The Historical Society of Pennsylvania Jilid 6 M. Carty And Davis (1858)

Wyatt-Brown, Bertrand. Southern Honor: Ethics and Behavior in the Old South, Oxford University Press (2007)


The Tar and Feathering of Father Joseph M. Keller Slaton, Texas 1920s

It was past the buds of bright red verbenas that the Civic Culture Club had urged the people of Slaton to plant so visitors who passed through by train would come to know the town as, Slaton Home of the Red Verbena . It was beyond the altar that sat undisturbed in the dark church already prepped for Sunday morning mass in the St. Joseph Catholic Parsonage.

On that night with only the light of the astonishing stars that have flickered against the skies from unknown regions throughout little known histories Father Joseph M. Keller staggered into the Slaton city limits, past cotton fields and newly built houses on the north end of town, verging on the appearance of a monster rather than a man.

Mostly nude he limped, wearing nothing but a layer of tar and scorched skin, cooled only momentarily by the gentle night breeze which, every once and while, may have made some of the white feathers attached to his body flutter, but not many.

He walked down the street that night, In the book Preachers of the Plains , John Peddigrew Hardesty wrote about Father Keller s journey into town. With only one house shoe on, neither barefooted nor shod, to his room.

Father Keller may have screamed, may have shouted, may have cried out and shrieked so loud it could have shattered a thousand communion chalices. However, there are no known reports of anyone hearing anything unusual from the barren cotton fields. All that remains are the various accounts of what may have happened in that field and the years leading to that one fateful night, nothing more than hearsay.

Slaton Catholic Church in the 1920s
T he murmurs and whispers began years before in 1917, two years after the sinking of the Lusitania but the same year American troops fired the first shot in the trench warfare of WWI. That year in Slaton, anti-German sentiments radiated from The Slatonite and Joseph M. Keller was chosen by the Catholic Diocese of Dallas to serve in the town after a brief stay in Hermleigh. His hometown, however, was thousands of miles away in Aachen, Germany.

The book Slaton Stories reported that the Catholic Church in Slaton dates to the same year as the town s birth, 1911. The first mass was held on December 8, 1911, on the day of the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, a Catholic Holy Day celebrating the Immaculate Conception of Mary the mass was officiated by Father Reisdorff with two Catholic families of Frank Simnacher and A.L. Hoffman, celebrating.

Because Father Reisdorff had an agreement with M.F. Klattenhoff that he would receive a commission on all land sold to the Catholic families who bought land in the area, the church grew tremendously within four years, and by 1917 the time had come to appoint a new pastor. The new pastor was German native, Reverend J.M. Keller.

J . Michael Carter of the Catholic Diocese of Amarillo, wrote in an essay that when Keller arrived the small town chatter began early. Keller s life entered a web of personality conflict and confusion, Carter wrote. By this time, the First World War raged in Europe and the editor of the Slaton newspaper began to denounce the Germans as barbarians and Huns, he wrote. Carter also wrote that since Keller had strong feelings about the war, he eventually confronted the editor of The Slatonite with an, angry retort.

After this exchange, it is believed, the rumors began, Soon the jaundiced eyes of Slaton turned toward Father Keller, Carter wrote.

The first rumor that circulated was that The Kaiser, the emperor of Germany whose policies helped bring about WWI, had appointed several hundred priests to do spy work in the United States. Keller, at one point, was believed to have been one of those priests, especially since Keller insisted on keeping a picture of Kaiser Wilhelm above his desk and, did not remove it until his parishioners forced him to, Carter wrote.

When the United States entered the war, it is believed that Keller made a patriotic gesture at a rally by buying war bonds. The next week, at another patriotic rally, the speaker had publicly denounced him because he was the only one who had failed to pay his share, Carter wrote.

The community was not pleased and the congregation became more and more divided over Keller s appointment. According to Carter, In 1918, some of the parishioners sent a petition to Bishop Lynch asking him to remove Father Keller but Lynch rejected the petition and ordered the petitioners to grant Keller the respect due him as a priest.

However, the people were not deterred and soon the priest was now a target for more personal ridicule and suspicion. Soon Keller was accused of lechery and adultery by citizens who also, claimed that he had syphilis, Carter wrote.

The complaints continued to the bishop but, once again, there was no hard evidence of suspicious behavior. Bishop Lynch investigated these charges thoroughly, Carter wrote. Documents of this investigation reveal that Keller was a man of odd habits and strange personality quirks but no evidence could be found to support the more serious charges against him.

At this time, according to the book Slaton Stories , German families continued to expand the church s size and, in 1919, a third and larger church was built. This building, costing approximately $10,000 was finished in 1920 by the men of the parish.

Two years after the construction of the new building the next round of rumors began to circulate. This time, the priest was accused of breaking the seal of confession. This time, the people had had enough.

Father Keller Sitting On His Porch
Slaton, Texas, 1920s

O n the night of March 4, 1922, Carter wrote. Keller got up from his reading to answer a knock at the door.

When Keller answered the door, he was met with six masked men wielding pistols.

It is believed one man fired a shot at the ceiling before the other men burst across the doorsteps and detained the shocked priest. Bound and gagged as the priest s terrified housekeeper watched, Keller was hauled away to a waiting car.

Carter wrote that Keller s assailants stuffed him down into the back seat and sped away past the safety of the newly installed city lights and out into the dreadful darkness of the country night. They drove out on a lonely road, Carter wrote. To a place several miles north of town, and when they stopped, the terrified Keller rose up to see 15 or 20 men waiting for him.

On Sunday, March 5, 1922, a meeting was held at the Odd Fellows Hall in Slaton. A statement was made to the associated press, The citizens of Slaton gave approval and commendation to the act, and it is the unanimous conviction that a very undesirable citizen had been dispatched.

John Peddigrew Hardesty wrote in his autobiography, Preachers of the Plains . There were some exciting times during those days, one night a group of men kidnapped the Catholic priest, took him to a secluded spot, whipped, tarred and feathered him.

The night before the meeting, however, many citizens did not know of the exact extent of the attack or the brutality that took place beneath the nightly stars.

Soon after the rumbling and rattling of the 1920 s vehicle stopped, there may have been a brief moment of silence in the dark night a small thought may have floated from man to man, but it was too late to go back. The decision had been made. Before the cruel and degrading tar and feathering, there was the lashing of whips that sliced the air and cut through Father Keller s skin.

After ripping his clothes off, it is believed his captors poured substantial blistering black tar over the priest before soft white feathers were thrown at him. As the tar cooled, encasing his skin and closing off his pores, the men left him out in the fields to find his way back.

Various accounts stated that the men told Keller, You have twenty-four hours to get out of town, soon after the inhumane assult. There are no records left as to how long the beating lasted. All that is known is that Father Keller was left alone in the barren field of chirping crickets and crying coyotes. Facing no other option, Father Keller staggered back into town with one house shoe on and wearing an outfit of tar and feathers.

J. Michael Carter wrote in an essay for the Diocese of Amarillo, The scourging ended after about 20 strokes, but the ordeal continued as the vigilantes proceeded to cover him with a coat of heated tar. Someone produced a pillow and after ripping it open, the group gleefully scattered feathers all over him.

H ardesty claims that Dr. Tucker helped the priest in his time of crisis. Dr. Tucker spent hours extracting the tar and feathers from his hide, he wrote. It is believed Keller may have stayed with Dr. Tucker that night, however, the next morning he boarded a train at Posey, and left for parts unknown, he never returned to Slaton, Hardesty wrote.

Other documents show that Keller spent a few days healing in a hospital in Amarillo. Carter said that when Keller left Amarillo, he stayed in a St. Louis hospital and it took him a year to fully recover from the incident, although, some say he never truly did.

Essentially, it would cause deep second and third degree burns, Michelle Harvey said in a recent interview. Harvey is a Physical Therapy Supervisor for the University Medical Center in Lubbock and works regularly with burn victims. Once the tar s been applied, you re talking about a risk of infection and a significant loss of fluids which can cause various problems including organ failure and death. Harvey also said that since there were no regulations at the time as to the temperature of tar, there is really no accurate gauge as to the extent of the trauma that could have been imposed on Keller.

H ardesty wrote that for months, gum shoe men, and women, walked the streets of Slaton, trying to figure out, who done it, but they had no luck. Hardesty also wrote that the District Judge stated he would, get to the bottom of this. However, nothing was ever done. The public was too well satisfied, he wrote.

Some have claimed it may have been the work of the Ku Klux Klan, however, according to Hardesty who neither acknowledged nor denied ever being affiliated with the Klan, wrote, Certain ineligibles, men whose private life, or social and business connections were such as to bar them from membership, ganged together and pulled some rough stuff on a few hoodlums, and laid it to the work of the Ku Klux Klan.

Hardesty, however, wrote, I did know a great deal about the work of the Klan in the early twenties. I do know that the law enforcement officers, school trustees, many of the county officials, including the sheriff, were Klansmen, and that the backbone of the evangelical churches of the community consisted of Klansmen.

According to what Hardesty wrote, though, It is a fact, brought out in the open next day, that at the very hour the priest was being tarred and feathered, a group of Catholic men were in the office of Attorney R.A. Baldwin, pleading with him to organize a, party, to wait on the priest and do exactly what was at the moment happening to him [Keller].

However, Carter wrote that the attack left many German Catholic residents in the community with a feeling of apprehension and mistrust that they too could be attacked in their community, their hometown. Even the Sisters of Mercy, who were in Slaton at the time, were advised to leave until mind-sets were less hostile and the populace was, once again, forbearing.

Carter claims that no Catholics were among the ones who attacked Keller. The attack provoked a response from Texas Catholics and several chapters of the Knights of Columbus sent letters to protest the City of Slaton. Carter also wrote that the National Catholic Welfare Council offered a $2,500 reward for information leading to the arrest and conviction of the guilty party. Bishop Lynch watched and waited, Carter wrote, he [Lynch] considered placing Slaton under interdict but soon he realized that the damage was done and the church [St. Joseph] would have to go on about its business.

T he whereabouts of Keller, however, did not remain a complete mystery. According to Carter and various historical documents, after his yearlong recuperation, Keller s last location was believed to be in Wisconsin.

According to a document about the history of St. Charles Borromeo Catholic Parish in Burlington, Wisconsin, on February 27, 1927 more than 6,000 people attended the reception of a new Reverend, Fredrick J. Hillenbrand.

The time was spent in an informal manner, the document stated. Music was furnished by Joseph Hoffman s Orchestra, which played from an alcove of banked ferns. It is believed that the Rev. Joseph M. Keller was one of the people who attended this party. He was serving at a parish in Brighton, Wisconsin.

With his scarred body and mind, Keller found himself surrounded by new camaraderie and a calm existence in Wisconsin. The murky night of March 4, 1922, as he was left to die in a bleak cotton pasture outside of Slaton, remained only a ghostly memory to him. One can only hope that the nightmare eventually wilted away like the final petals of a red verbena in the beginnings of a Slaton autumn.

© James Villanueva
Guest Column, October 1, 2010
Originally Published in The Slatonite, Slaton's newspaper
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Tarring and Feathering - History

Emerging Revolutionary War is honored to welcome back historian Katie Turner Getty.

“Mr. Malcom, I hope you are not going to strike this boy with that stick.”[1]

George Robert Twelves Hewes portrait, entitled “The Centenarian” by Joseph G. Cole, 1835.

The speaker was 31-year-old Boston shoemaker and Tea Party participant, George Robert Twelves Hewes. Hewes had been walking along Fore Street in Boston on the afternoon of January 25, 1774 when he came across 50-year-old Loyalist and Customs officer, John Malcom, furiously shaking a large, heavy cane at the head of a small boy.

Five weeks earlier, on December 16, 1773, Hewes had “dressed [himself] in the costume of an Indian, painted [his] face and hands with coal dust in the shop of a blacksmith”[2] and participated in the Tea Party. Appointed boatswain, he and his company boarded one of the three ships and proceeded to soak 342 chests of East India Company tea in Boston Harbor. After dumping the tea that night, the men “quietly retired to [their] several places of residence… No disorder took place… and the stillest night ensued that Boston had enjoyed for many months.”[3]

Hewes had encountered no trouble when destroying the tea that night. But on this frigid Tuesday afternoon in January, trouble had found him—and was brandishing a cane.

Malcom turned his attention from the small boy to the shoemaker and exclaimed, “You are an impertinent rascal! It is none of your business!”[4]

Undeterred, five-foot, one-inch Hewes further protested Malcom’s rough treatment of the boy. Malcom called Hewes a “vagabond” and further declared that Hewes “should not speak to a gentleman in the street.”[5]

Hewes replied that he was “neither a rascal nor a vagabond, and though a poor man, was in as good credit in town as [Malcom] was.”[6] The exchange between the two men became even more heated.

Malcom called Hewes a liar and Hewes then retorted, “be that as it will, I never was tarred and feathered any how.”[7]

Malcom, overcome with fury, then struck Hewes in the head with his heavy cane, opening a bloody gash in the shoemaker’s forehead and causing him to fall to the ground unconscious.

John Malcom was one of the few people in the American colonies who had been tarred and feathered. Before this night was through, he would earn the dubious distinction of having been tarred and feathered twice.

“A New Method of Macarony Making, as Practised at Boston”, 1774.

Malcom’s first encounter with a sticky suit of tar and feathers was in October of 1773 in Falmouth (now Portland, Maine). While working as a Customs officer, Malcom had overzealously seized a ship called the Brothers for not having a register. Once aboard the ship, he “heartily damned the sailors, menaced the mate, [and] threatened to sheath his sword in the bowels of any one who dared dispute his authority.”[8]

So enraged were local sailors by Malcom’s behavior, that he was “disarm’d of Sword, Cane, Hat & Wig”[9], tarred and feathered over his clothes, and paraded through the streets for about an hour before being released.

This episode was common knowledge in Boston. In a letter to the Earl of Dartmouth, Massachusetts Governor Thomas Hutchinson indicated that Malcom had complained to him on several occasions of “being hooted at in the Streets for having been tarred and feathered”[10] Clearly, the Boston populace was not sympathetic to Malcom. And after his assault on Hewes, they would become even less so.

When Hewes regained consciousness, he found himself surrounded by a crowd of onlookers who urged him to visit the prominent Boston physician, Dr. Joseph Warren, to have his wound treated. In the meantime, Malcom had “contrived to get a weapon in his hand and keep [the crowd] at bay, till he could flee to his house”[11] on Cross Street.

When Hewes visited Dr. Warren at his office on Hanover Street, the doctor made a cheerful comment relating to the fortuitous thickness of Hewes’s skull. He said, “you are the luckiest man I know of, to have such a skull—nothing else could have saved you.”[12]

Word of Malcom’s assault on Hewes had quickly spread through Boston and people had started gathering outside his house. Far from being cowed by the unfriendly crowd, Malcom “bullied the people”[13], slinging verbal taunts and threats. In response to jeers, Malcom shouted “You say I was tarred and feathered, and that it was not done in a proper manner, damn you let me see the man that dare do it better!”[14]

Even 243 years later, Malcom’s defiance of the crowd is astonishing. From inside his house, he ran his sword out through the window and inflicted a flesh wound on an unlucky bystander named Waddel. He threatened the crowd with pistols and proclaimed that he would receive a thirty pound reward for every person he killed[15]. The formidable Malcom was eventually removed from his house “amidst the huzzas of thousand[s]”[16] He was dragged on a sled to King Street, site of the Boston Massacre, and was stripped of his clothes.

In Falmouth, during his first tar and feathering in 1773, the tar was splashed onto his clothes. This time, Malcom’s clothing was torn off, exposing him to the frigid winter air. The tar was poured over his bare flesh. He was then transferred to a cart and gleefully hauled to various points across town.

Sixty years later, Hewes reflected upon the event in his biography. “Then they drove to Liberty Tree—to the gallows on the Neck—back to the Tree—to Butcher’s Hall again—to Charlestown Ferry—to Copp’s Hill—flogging the miserable wretch at every one of these places.”[17] Four hours later, he was unceremoniously deposited at the doorstep of his house, frostbitten and senseless.

The reader may feel a slight twinge of disappointment, or perhaps even a grudging respect, upon learning that throughout his ordeal, John Malcom comported himself with “Great Fortitude and Resolution”.[18] Malcom’s recovery was lengthy. When frostbite caused his tarred and feathered flesh to peel off in strips, Malcom packed the skin in a box to preserve it and present to the King as proof of his service and sufferings.[19]

In May, 1774 Malcom sailed for England (presumably with his box of tarred flesh and feathers). Once in England, Malcom embarked on a letter-writing campaign to request redress for all of the suffering and expense he endured in America in furtherance of his service to the King.

In 1776, Malcom wrote a letter to the Lords of the Treasury. In referencing the altercation with Hewes in Boston and his subsequent tarring and feathering, Malcom stated that in “endeavoring to do my Duty in getting the Tea landed, [he] was barbarously and inhumanely treated…[and] was obliged to quit America”.[20]

Also in the letter, he accused his former Customs supervisor in Falmouth, Francis Waldo, of various misdeeds. Waldo had strongly disagreed with Malcom’s seizure of the Brothers and the two had never reconciled.

Waldo’s ire is still palpable 240 years later as, in response, he meticulously dismantles Malcom’s claims in a letter to the Lords of the Treasury, point by painstaking point:

“Mr Malcom went to Boston and brought upon himself a second Taring [sic] and Feathering…which happened some time after the India Companys Teas were destroyed and was occasioned by his beating a Boy in the Street in such a manner as to raise a Mob”[21]

Many factors probably contributed to the second tarring and feathering of Malcom, but any efforts he might have made to land the tea were not among them. As Waldo pointed out, the tea had been destroyed over a month before Malcom was tarred. Malcom was already unpopular in town due to objectionable past actions such as the Brothers seizure. He was a particularly overzealous and aggressive Customs officer. And the man he assaulted was a Patriot and tea party participant.

“Bostonian’s Paying the Excise-Man, or Tarring and Feathering”, attributed to Philip Dawe, London, 1774.

Additionally, Bostonians felt a simmering resentment toward the authorities. When some men tried to persuade the crowd to stop tormenting Malcom, they refused to relinquish him.[22] They believed the government would fail to punish him for his wrongs—assaulting the boy and Hewes, threatening the populace, and sticking Waddel with his sword. Instead, the crowd chose to maintain possession of Malcom and mete out the justice that they believed the government would not.

Malcom was in England barely a year before he demonstrated a desire to return to Boston. In a petition to the King, Malcom states that he “long[s] to be sent out to my Family in Boston and to my Business in the Customs in the Boston Government…I would Humbly Implore your Majesty let Me be soon sent from London to Boston…”[23]

In the end, Malcom was assigned to the Independent Company of Invalids at the Plymouth Garrison. He penned several more letters and petitions asking for additional compensation from the British government.

In 1782, the Commissioners on American Loyalist Claims reviewed his case and decided to allow him another 60 pounds per year on account of his having been tarred and feathered, but in no small part because “he appears to be in some degree insane.”[24]

Malcom lived out the rest of his days in England, passing away in 1788 at age 65. He never went back to Boston, nor ever saw his wife or children again.

Hewes lived to be 98 years old. In 1775, after war broke out, he escaped from Boston in a fishing boat and went to Wrentham, Massachusetts. He served in the militia until the end of the war. Eventually he moved to upstate New York. He was married for 70 years until his wife, Sally, passed away at the age of 87. By all accounts, he was lively and spry until the end. On the 4 th of July, 1840, he was preparing to attend a celebration as a special veteran guest. On that day, George Robert Twelves Hewes stumbled while stepping into a carriage and suffered a serious injury. He died that November.

[1] Boston-Gazette and Country Journal, 31 January 1774. The Annotated Newspapers of Harbottle Dorr Jr., Massachusetts Historical Society http://www.masshist.org/dorr/volume/4/sequence/522 Hereinafter cited as Boston-Gazette.

[2] A Citizen of New York [James Hawkes], A Retrospect of the Boston Tea-Party, with a Memoir of George R. T. Hewes, a Survivor of- the Little Band of Patriots Who Drowned the Tea in Boston Harbour in 1773 (New York: S. Bliss, printer, 1834), 38. https://archive.org/details/retrospectofbost00hawk Hereinafter cited as Hawkes.

[8] Boston-Gazette and Country Journal, 14 February 1774, quoted in Frank W.C. Hersey, Tar and Feathers: The Adventures of Captain John Malcom, reprinted from the Transactions of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, volume XXXIV, (Boston: D.B. Updike, The Merrymount Press, 1943), 440.

[9] Boston-Gazette and Country-Journal, 15 November 1773, quoted in Hersey, 440.

[10] Governor Thomas Hutchinson letter to Earl of Dartmouth, 28 January 1774, quoted in Hersey, 448.

[11] A Bostonian [Benjamin Bussey Thatcher], Traits of the Tea Party Being a Memoir of George R. T. Hewes, One of the Last of Its Survivors With a History of That Transaction Reminiscences of the Massacre, and the Siege, and Other Stories of Old Times (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1835), 128. https://archive.org/details/traitsteapartyb00thatgoog Hereinafter cited as Thatcher.

[15] Massachusetts Spy, 27 January 1774, quoted in Hersey, 444.

[18] John Rowe, Anne Rowe Cunningham, Edward Lilly Pierce, Letters and diary of John Rowe: Boston merchant, 1759-1762, 1764-1779, (Boston: W.B. Clark Co., 1903), 261.

[21] Francis Waldo, letter to Lords of the Treasury, November 21, 1776, quoted in Hersey, 442.

[22] Massachusetts Spy, 26 January 1774, quoted in Hersey, 445.

[23] John Malcom, petition to King George the Third, January 12, 1775, quoted in Hersey, 463.

[24] Commissioners on American Loyalist Claims, Decision, as quoted in Hersey, 469.


Tonton videonya: Cardiacs - Tarred And Feathered - HQ (Ogos 2022).