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Lee Strasberg

Lee Strasberg


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Lee Strasberg dilahirkan di Budanov, Ukraine, pada 17 November 1901. Keluarga Strasberg berhijrah ke Amerika Syarikat pada tahun 1908. Strasberg tinggal di Lower East Side di New York dan semasa remaja dia mula beraksi di drama.

Strasberg belajar di Moscow di bawah pengarah Rusia, Konstantin Stanislavsky, yang telah mengembangkan sistem latihan dan latihan untuk pelakon yang mendasarkan persembahan berdasarkan pengalaman emosi dalaman.

Pada tahun 1931 Strasberg bergabung dengan Harold Clurman untuk membentuk Kumpulan Teater di New York. Yang lain yang terlibat dalam kumpulan itu termasuk Elia Kazan, John Garfield, Howard Da Silva, Franchot Tone, John Randolph, Joseph Bromberg, Clifford Odets dan Lee J. Cobb. Anggota kumpulan cenderung memegang pandangan politik kiri dan ingin menghasilkan drama yang menangani masalah sosial yang penting.

Kumpulan Teater menghasilkan beberapa drama terkenal termasuk Rumah Connelly (1931 oleh Paul Green), Yang Dihina (1932 oleh Marc Blitzstein), Lelaki berbaju putih (1933 oleh Sidney Kingsley), Menunggu Lefty (1935 oleh Clifford Odets), The Cradle Will Rock (1937 oleh Marc Blitzstein) dan Hatiku di Dataran Tinggi (1939 oleh William Saroyan).

Kumpulan Teater bubar pada tahun 1941 dan Strasberg berpindah ke Hollywood. Dia kembali ke Manhattan pada tahun 1947 di mana dia bergabung dengan Elia Kazan untuk membentuk Actors Studio. Selama beberapa tahun akan datang, dia membantu melatih sebilangan besar pelakon termasuk Marlon Brando, Rod Steiger, Eli Wallach, Patricia Neal, Dustin Hoffman dan Robert DeNiro.

Lee Strasberg meninggal pada 17 Februari 1982.


Teater Kumpulan (New York City)

The Teater Berkumpulan adalah kolektif teater yang berpusat di New York City dan dibentuk pada tahun 1931 oleh Harold Clurman, Cheryl Crawford dan Lee Strasberg. [1] Ini dimaksudkan sebagai pangkalan untuk jenis teater yang mereka dan rakan sekerja mereka percayai - seni yang kuat, naturalistik dan sangat berdisiplin. Mereka adalah pelopor apa yang akan menjadi "teknik lakonan Amerika", yang berasal dari ajaran Konstantin Stanislavski, tetapi mendorongnya juga. Syarikat itu merangkumi pelakon, pengarah, penulis drama, dan penerbit. Nama "Kumpulan" berasal dari idea pelakon sebagai ensemble murni yang merujuk kepada syarikat kerana "kumpulan kami" mendorong mereka untuk "menerima yang tidak dapat dielakkan dan memanggil syarikat mereka The Group Theatre." [2]

Kumpulan Teater yang berpusat di New York tidak mempunyai hubungan dengan Kumpulan Teater bernama yang berpusat di London dan ditubuhkan pada tahun 1932.

Dalam 10 tahun keberadaannya, Kumpulan Teater menghasilkan karya oleh banyak penulis drama Amerika yang penting, termasuk Clifford Odets, Sidney Kingsley, Paul Green, Robert Ardrey, dan Irwin Shaw. Pengeluarannya yang paling terkenal termasuk Kisah kejayaan dibintangi oleh Stella Adler dan Luther Adler, Clifford Odets ' Bangun dan Bernyanyi, Menunggu Lefty, Syurga Hilang, dan hit 1937–38 Broadway Budak Emas, dibintangi oleh Luther Adler dan Frances Farmer.


Kandungan

Setelah perjumpaan awal yang diadakan pada 5 Oktober 1947, di Panggung Buruh, yang terletak di 106 W. 39th Street (dahulunya Teater Puteri), di mana tujuan dan peraturan dasar organisasi baru dibincangkan, studio ini secara rasmi dibuka untuk perniagaan keesokan harinya di Union Methodist Episcopal Church, yang terletak di 229 West 48th Street, [3] yang sebelumnya merupakan rumah bagi Actors Kitchen and Lounge (dikendalikan untuk membantu pelakon dan orang lain yang tidak mampu membeli makanan), dan menjadi sumber ruang latihan penyewaan untuk penduduk tempatan pengeluar teater. [4] [5] [6]

Sebelum menetap di lokasi sekarang pada tahun 1955, Studio bergerak secara berkala dalam jangka masa lapan tahun: Pada bulan Januari 1948, ia adalah sebuah studio tarian di East 59th Street. Pada bulan April tahun itu, pindah ke Gedung CBS di Broadway 1697, dekat Jalan 53, mewujudkan beberapa kemantapan Studio tidak akan bergerak lagi sehingga musim panas 1952. [3] Sejak itu, bilik-bilik latihan Guild Teater lama di tingkat atas Teater ANTA menjadi rumah, kerana mereka akan kekal sehingga Oktober 1954, ketika pengubahsuaian teater mengurangkan Studio untuk menyewa ruang dua kali seminggu. Ini dilakukan di Malin Studios di Broadway 1545, bilik 610. Pengaturan ini berterusan sepanjang musim teater 1954-1955, walaupun Studio memperoleh dan mengubah suai tempatnya sekarang. [7]

Pada tahun 1955 ia berpindah ke lokasinya sekarang di bekas West 44th Street United Presbyterian Church, struktur kebangkitan Yunani yang dibina untuk Gereja Presbyterian Bersekutu Ketujuh pada tahun 1858 atau 1859. Ia adalah salah satu gereja terakhir yang dibina dengan gaya itu di Bandar New York. [8]

Dalam pembacaan yang telah saya lakukan, saya mendapati bahawa Eleonora Duse di Itali, ketika dia melihat Sarah Bernhardt, dari Perancis, yang membuka keseluruhan pendekatan untuk bertindak, dan dia terangsang untuk membawa dirinya sendiri di atas panggung, dan ketika dia pergi ke Rusia pada akhir abad kesembilan belas dan tampil di sana, dan Chekhov melihatnya, dia menulis surat kepada adiknya selepas itu, dan dia mengatakan bahawa "ini adalah teater yang baru dia memperkenalkan saya" dan dia kemudian mula menulis drama untuk itu gaya lakonan, untuk Moscow Art Theatre, dan yang mempengaruhi Stanislavsky, yang kemudian datang ke Amerika pada tahun 1926 dan semasa dia berada di sini, Strasberg dan Bobby Lewis dan semua orang itu - Stella Adler - semua pelajar lakonan muda dan mereka pergi untuk berjumpa dengan Stanislavsky dan kemudian mula belajar dengan orang Rusia. Orang-orang itu kemudian memulakan The Group Theatre, kemudian setelah itu ditutup dalam lapan tahun, meninggalkan badan guru pelakon terhebat di negara ini. Dan semua orang itu mula Studio Pelakon. Jadi ini langsung - kita adalah generasi berikut, tetapi semuanya kembali ke Eleonora Duse dan Sarah Bernhardt.
—Ellen Burstyn, Charlie Rose pertunjukan, 26 Mei 1994 [9] [10]

Dari September 1994 hingga Mei 2005, Studio bekerjasama dengan The New School dalam pendidikan pelajar teater peringkat master di Sekolah Drama Studio Pelakon (ASDS). Setelah menamatkan kontraknya dengan The New School, Actors Studio menubuhkan The Actors Studio Drama School di Pace University pada tahun 2006.


Lee Strasberg

Topik. Penanda sejarah ini disenaraikan dalam senarai topik ini: Seni, Surat, Muzik. Tarikh bersejarah yang penting untuk entri ini adalah pada 17 Februari 1982.

Lokasi. 40 & deg 44.1 & # 8242 N, 73 & deg 59.332 & # 8242 W. Marker berada di New York, New York, di New York County. Marker berada di Jalan 15 Timur di sebelah barat Irving Place, di sebelah kanan ketika mengembara ke barat. Sentuh untuk peta. Marker berada di atau berhampiran alamat pos ini: 115 E 15th St, New York NY 10003, Amerika Syarikat. Sentuh untuk arahan.

Penanda berdekatan yang lain. Sekurang-kurangnya 8 penanda lain berada dalam jarak berjalan kaki dari penanda ini. Elihu Root (dalam jarak menjerit penanda ini) Union Square (kira-kira 400 kaki, diukur dalam garis langsung) Lafayette (sekitar 400 kaki) Metronome, 1999 (sekitar 400 kaki) Washington Irving (sekitar 500 kaki) Akademi Tapak Muzik (sekitar 500 kaki) Patung George Washington (sekitar 500 kaki) satu penanda yang berbeza juga bernama Patung George Washington (sekitar 500 kaki). Sentuh untuk senarai dan peta semua penanda di New York.

Lihat juga. . . Lee Strasburg. Biografi Wikipedia. (Dihantar pada 28 Jun 2020, oleh Larry Gertner dari New York, New York.)


III. TANDA LEE STRASBERG UNTUK STANISLAVSKI

Lee Strasberg mengakui lakonan yang diilhamkan oleh pelakon yang disaksikannya di atas pentas. Dalam A Impian Nafsu dia menceritakan kisah peserta Teater Kumpulan pada tahun-tahun awal mereka sebelum ensembel terkenal mereka terbentuk. Strasberg menyaksikan persembahan oleh pelakon Giovanni Grasso yang dianggapnya sebagai puncak lakonan. Dia mengajak kenalan termasuk Stella Adler untuk melihat artis itu bekerja di pementasan La Morte Civile. Ketika Grasso mulai bermain dengan buruk, Strasberg merosot lebih rendah di kursinya kerana malu dengan saranan persembahannya. Kemudian inspirasi mengubah Grasso. Strasberg berkata,

  • Saya telah melihat persembahan berinspirasi, tetapi saya tidak melihat momen inspirasi tiba-tiba seperti ketika itu. Dia menyentuhnya, dan sentuhan itu seolah-olah menimbulkan dorongan. Ini tidak bertindak: ini nyata - darah sebenar, pecah saluran darah yang sebenar. Sejak saat itu, wajahnya, seluruh tubuhnya, dan keseluruhan penampilannya berubah. Saya duduk tegak di kerusi saya, bersedia untuk mengambil busur. (Strasberg 26)

Ketidakpastian Strasberg mengenai bagaimana mendapatkan persembahan seperti Grasso dari dirinya atau orang lain, membawanya ke Denis Diderot Paradoks Lakonan. Fakta bahawa Stanislavsky telah menyebut karangan dalam autobiografinya, Kehidupan Saya Dalam Seni, juga menarik Strasberg ke tulisan Diderot. Dalam Impian Nafsu, Strasberg memetik watak Diderot sebagai pelakon wanita pada zamannya. Le Clairon ““ Mengapa ketika dia kembali ke panggung setelah sepuluh tahun ketiadaan dia bermain tetapi dengan sederhana? Adakah dia kehilangan jiwanya, kepekaannya, hatinya? "Apa yang telah hilang, Diderot mencadangkan," adalah ingatan kaedahnya ". Saya menyedari bahawa yang pasti menarik perhatian Stanislavski ke karangan Diderot adalah permintaan untuk kaedah kreativiti ”(34). Strasberg percaya bahawa Stanislavsky pasti membaca pernyataan yang sama dan merasa terdorong untuk membuat "sistem" -nya. Strasberg mencirikan reaksinya terhadap esei Diderot dan kaitannya dengan Stanislavsky dengan cara ini: "Keperluan kaedah untuk mencapai kreativiti secara konsisten sepertinya menunjukkan kepada jawapan yang saya sendiri cari" (33-34).

Ketika Strasberg melihat musim Theatre Art Moscow tahun 1923-24, dia semakin tertarik. Dia mengatakan mengenai pertunjukan, "Saya ragu bahawa detik-detik yang terperinci, momen-ke-momen yang terperinci di panggung yang diwakili oleh dan disertai oleh setiap anggota pelakon akan dapat dicapai lagi [& # 8230]" (39). Strasberg juga merangkul istilah teknikal Stanislavsky untuk teknik lakonannya seperti Memori Afektif. Dia menyebut Kenangan Afektif pelakon itu sebagai "kunci emas", yang membuka beberapa momen terhebat dalam lakonan "(Garfield 15). Dalam karya Stanislavsky dan MAT, Strasberg akhirnya melihat jalan untuk mencapai lakonan yang diilhamkan yang dilihatnya oleh Giovanni Grasso La Morte Civile. Dia menyatakan "Langkah penentu dalam mencari penyelesaian masalah pelakon adalah penampilan Teater Seni Moscow pada tahun 1923-24" (Strasberg 36).

David Garfield di Tempat Pemain menceritakan bahawa, pada tahun 1923, "Strasberg menghadiri musim tayangan perdana Moscow Art Theatre (MAT) di Panggung Jalan Lima Puluh Sembilan Al Jolson. Ini menunjukkan secara konkrit kepada Strasberg bahawa idea-idea mengenai teater dan lakonan yang dia asimilasi dari pembacaan dan pemikirannya dapat menjadi kenyataan yang nyata ”(8). Dia melanjutkan dengan mengatakan, "Strasberg melihat setiap produksi ini [pada musim kedua], kebanyakan yang lain, [pada musim pertama] dan sejumlah dari mereka lebih dari sekali" (8). Strasberg tidak diambil oleh penampilan pelakon tertentu tetapi "totalitas tiga dimensi hidup di atas panggung oleh setiap pelakon" (9). Strasberg juga membaca semua yang dia dapat mengenai MAT (8).

Ketika dia bercakap mengenai komen Diderot pada Mme. Le Clairon, Strasberg merujuk kepada suatu kaedah atau teknik yang akan menjadikan pelakon dari lakonan yang tidak bersemangat menjadi lakonan yang diilhamkan atau penuh emosi, iaitu jenis lakonan Stanislavsky yang menyaksikan mentornya Fedotov tampil. “Fedotov hidup secara organik…. Fedotov mempunyai kehidupan yang nyata dan hidup, saya hanya mempunyai laporan mengenai kehidupan itu ”(Stanislavsky, Kehidupan 164). Seperti yang dinyatakan sebelumnya, Stanislavsky menyebut teorinya sebagai "sistem" Strasberg menyebutnya Metode (Strasberg 60). Apakah Kaedah Strasberg? Dia menyatakan dengan sederhana, "Metode [benar] adalah kelanjutan dan penambahan sistem Stanislavsky [sic] di Rusia" (Strasberg 6).

Untuk memahami apa yang difikirkan oleh Strasberg, dia menambah idea Stanislavsky seseorang mesti memahami karya ahli Teater Seni Moscow yang lain. Strasberg belajar tentang "sistem" Stanislavsky dari Richard Boleslavsky dan Maria Ousepenskay di Teater Makmal Amerika mereka di New York, sebuah sekolah yang beberapa orang telah digambarkan sebagai "salah satu daripada banyak kumpulan pecahan […] yang awalnya datang ke Stanislavsky untuk belajar dan belajar dari Tuan, akhirnya meninggalkan dan membentuk sekolah dan teater mereka sendiri ”(Dwight 145).

Boleslavsky dan Ouspenskaya bergulat dengan bentuk baru sistem Stanislavsky, Kaedah Aksi Fizikal, "revisi radikal pendekatannya terhadap masalah bertindak dan mengarahkan yang diumumkannya ketika kembali dari Finland pada tahun 1906 […]" (Benedetti, Pengenalan 97). Mereka berdua adalah ahli Studio Pertama. Studio Pertama adalah studio baru untuk pelakon yang dibuka Stanislavsky di bawah naungan MAT. Dia menggunakan sekolah ini untuk menyempurnakan Kaedah fizikalnya. Anggota MAT yang lebih tua tidak menerima teori barunya. Dia berharap Kaedah tindakan Fizikal dapat berkembang dengan pelakon muda yang mendiami sekolah (97).

Akhirnya, Boleslavsky dan Ouspenskaya menemui cara mereka sendiri untuk menyatakan idea-idea Stanislavsky. Sebilangan ajaran mereka sejajar dengan Stanislavsky, yang lain memperluas bagaimana teknik dalam "sistemnya" didefinisikan dan diterapkan. Saya akan mundur dan melihat bagaimana Strasberg meneliti idea ahli The Moscow Art Theatre untuk mencapai tafsirannya mengenai "sistem" Stanislavsky.

Perkembangan Kaedah

Semasa Strasberg mendekati kesimpulan bukunya Impian Nafsu dia menyatakan, "Kesinambungan dan penyatuan penemuan Stanislavsky dan Vakhtangov menjadi dasar Kaedah" (175). Eugene Vakhtangov adalah ahli pengasas First Studio "di mana improvisasi menjadi ciri penting latihannya" (Benedetti, Pengenalan 64). Bagi Strasberg, utusan tafsiran Vakhtangov terhadap Stanislavsky adalah Boleslavsky dan Ouspenskaya. Kedua-duanya bekerja bersama Vakhtangov di First Studio (Garfield, Pemain 11).

Menurut Strasberg, Boleslavsky, "sangat dipengaruhi oleh hubungannya dengan Vakhtangov, yang merupakan guru pasti" sistem ", bahkan di mata Stanislavski hingga kematiannya pada tahun 1922" (Garfield, Tempat 10). Strasberg menegaskan bahawa dia meneruskan kerja Vakhtangov. "Sejauh mana Vakhtangov secara radikal mengubah atau mengubah ajaran dasar Sistem Stanislavsky dapat diperdebatkan" (Gordon 101). Pada tahun 1914 drama pertama yang diarahkannya ke MAT, Festival Damai membuat Stanislavsky, "putih dengan kemarahan" (Magarshack, Kehidupan 334). Apa yang dilakukan Vakhtangov telah melanggar salah satu prinsip Stanislavsky “[…] dalam menampilkan sisi gelap kehidupan, penerbit dan pelakon harus selalu mencari sisi yang lebih terang” (334).

Vakhtangov adalah pelajar berharga Stanislavsky dan dianggap bahawa dia telah mencuba "Stanislavsying out-Stanislavsky" (Gordon 44). Para pelakon di Vakhtangov's Festival Damai, "Menghasilkan keadaan emosi yang autentik dan menyedihkan yang menimbulkan gelombang histeria dalam penontonnya. Semua bersetuju bahawa itu adalah penyalahgunaan Sistem dan kepercayaan penonton yang bersimpati ”(45). Tetapi kemudian Vakhtangov dianugerahkan studionya sendiri, iaitu Studio Ketiga (356). Pencapaiannya yang memuncak adalah komedi dongeng, Puteri Turandot. Ini adalah versi lakonan improvisasi (356).

Catatan ringkas ini mengenai sebahagian daripada kerjaya Vakhtangov menekankan dua teknik Stanislavsky yang sepertinya dititikberatkan oleh Vakhtangov: Improvisasi dan Ingatan Afektif. Vakhtangov berkata, "[Segala sesuatu] yang dilakukan pelakon di atas panggung adalah, baik dia tahu atau tidak, memori afektif" (Garfield 17).

Sejauh teknik Stanislavsky berkenaan, definisi khusus Emosi Memory, Improvisation, Relaxation, Concentration dll tetap konsisten ketika berlalu antara Vakhtangov, Boleslavsky dan Ouspenskaya dan akhirnya ke Strasberg. Yang berubah adalah penekanan yang diberikan kepada teknik tertentu. Sebagai contoh, Boleslavsky memperluas idea Stanislavsky ketika dia menyampaikan Relaksasi dengan cara ini. Dia menyebutnya "relaksasi rohani", cara "mengatasi tekanan dalaman dan gangguan kehidupan moden" (14). Untuk mewujudkan "relaksasi rohani" ini, pelakon akan

  • […] Berkonsentrasi pada pengalaman deria yang lalu seperti menangani objek peribadi (misalnya, mainan kanak-kanak) atau memakai pakaian biasa, sehingga sensasi yang diingati menimbulkan respons emosi dari pelakon dengan pengecualian rangsangan yang sebenarnya datang dari luar. Ini membangkitkan perasaan melalui rangsangan khayalan & # 8211 apa yang biasanya disebut latihan ingatan akal & # 8211 adalah memainkan peranan yang sangat penting dalam karya Strasberg (14).

Boleslavsky menggunakan istilah lain "tumpuan spiritual". Ini adalah kemampuan pelakon untuk mengatakan kepada emosinya, "[Berhenti] dan isi seluruh makhluk saya" (14)! Dengan memberi makna yang lebih luas kepada unsur-unsur Stanislavsky adakah Boleslavsky sebenarnya mengubahnya? Tanpa mengubah "sistem" asasnya, Vakhtangov, Boleslavsky dan Strasberg masih menggunakan kebanyakan teknik dan latihan kembali ke Memori Afektif, sehingga menekankannya.

David Garfield di Tempat Pemain menegaskan, "Perhatian Strasberg pada Memori Afektif dan desakannya pada kepentingan utamanya dalam karya kreatif pelakon adalah menjadi ciri khas pedagoginya. […] Dia berpendapat ingatan afektif adalah konsep utama kerana itulah yang memungkinkan kemampuan pelakon untuk benar-benar berpengalaman di atas pentas ”(16).

Intipati Kaedah

Dari tajuk bukunya, Impian Nafsu, kita dapat mengumpulkan fokus Strasberg. Tajuknya diambil dari kesendirian Hamlet's. Hamlet mengagumi kemampuan seorang pelakon untuk menangis di atas Hecuba, sementara Hamlet sendiri, masih banyak lagi yang harus ditangisi.

Bukankah hebat pemain ini di sini,

Tetapi dalam fiksyen, dalam mimpi keghairahan,

Boleh memaksa jiwanya untuk sombongnya sendiri

Oleh kerana dia bekerja, semua pandangannya semakin berkurang,

Air mata di matanya, gangguan dalam aspeknya,

Suara patah, dan seluruh fungsinya sesuai

Dengan bentuk ke sombongnya? Dan semuanya sia-sia!

Untuk Hecuba! (Shakespeare, Dusun Akta II, Sc.2)

Strasberg sedang mencari cara untuk membangkitkan "impian semangat" itu dari para pelakon pada zamannya. Dia menemukan cara dalam "sistem" Stanislavsky.

Seperti Stanislavsky, Strasberg mengeluh bahawa tidak ada artis hebat teater yang menuliskan proses untuk mengulangi apa yang telah mereka capai. Stanislavsky menyatakan bahawa mereka hanya, "pemikiran rawak yang diucapkan oleh Shakespeare, Moliere, Ekholm, Schroeder, Goethe, Lessing […] Tetapi semua pendapat dan nasihat berharga ini tidak sistematis, dan tidak dikurangkan menjadi satu penyebut yang sama, dan oleh itu fakta tetap ada asas-asas yang mungkin membimbing guru seni kita hilang ”(Stanislavsky, Kehidupan 166). Strasberg bersetuju: "[Kami] mempunyai contoh lakonan hebat dan pelakon hebat, tetapi tidak banyak catatan dari pelakon itu sendiri atau pengkritik mereka mengenai bagaimana kehebatan itu dicapai atau prosedur yang diperlukan untuk membuat atau mencipta semula. Sebelum penemuan pengarah Rusia yang hebat Constantin Stanislavsky, semua lakonan dianggap sebagai inspirasi atau luaran ”(Strasberg, Impian 5).

Strasberg juga menyatakan keprihatinannya terhadap pelakon dengan inspirasi yang tidak konsisten dan akses yang tidak konsisten terhadap emosi yang dipenuhi, kehidupan seperti lakonan. Di sini dia sekali lagi merujuk kepada pelakon Ben-Ami yang hebat dalam Samson dan Delilah tetapi tidak bersemangat dalam Spiegelmensch. "Tanpa menyedarinya sepenuhnya, saya mulai menyedari masalah asas dalam bertindak yang harus saya amati berulang kali: masalah inspirasi. Ini sudah lama sebelum saya mengetahui bagaimana ia dapat diselesaikan ”(21). Dalam Impian Nafsu Strasberg menceritakan kepulangan Stanislavsky ke Moscow setelah kekalahannya di Finland, kekosongan ketika Stanislavski mula memformalkan "sistemnya":

  • Stanislavsky yang berusia empat puluh tiga tahun kembali ke Moscow dan memulai penyelesaian masalah yang menjadi obsesi. […] Dia telah menyedari bahawa kreativiti di atas panggung menuntut pertama-tama keadaan istimewa, yang disebutnya "Mood kreatif". […] Suasana kreatif ini sepertinya tidak terkawal dari kehendak pelakon. Itu dianggap inspirasi, anugerah para dewa. Walaupun begitu, Stanislavsky bertanya kepada dirinya sendiri, "tidak ada cara teknis untuk menciptakan suasana kreatif sehingga inspirasi dapat muncul lebih sering daripada yang biasa?" (Strasberg, Impian 50)

Melalui penerapan teknik khusus dari "sistem" Stanislavsky, Strasberg memulakan usahanya untuk menyelesaikan masalah yang sama.
"Metode, seperti yang dikembangkan oleh Strasberg selama bertahun-tahun, dimulai dengan dua elemen asas" sistem ", yang dianggap oleh Strasberg antara penemuan Stanislavski yang paling besar dan paling penting: Relaksasi dan Konsentrasi" (Garfield 169).

Latihan Strasberg untuk Relaksasi dimulakan dengan pelakon di kerusi. Sama ada kerusi itu selesa atau tidak bukan masalah. Semasa pelakon itu membuat persembahan, dia akan menghadapi pelbagai keadaan yang tidak selesa. Apa jua keadaan yang dia hadapi di atas pentas pelakon pasti selalu santai. Kerusi yang tidak selesa adalah contoh untuk keadaan tidak selesa yang mungkin berlaku di atas pentas.

Pernah menyedari emosi, Strasberg memberikan injap pelepas kepada pelakon dalam latihan Relaksasi. Sekiranya emosi yang kuat muncul semasa bersantai, pelakon itu melepaskannya dengan mengeluarkan suara "dari dalam dada [...] untuk memastikan emosi itu tidak tersekat." (169). Akhirnya kelonggaran pelakon "diuji oleh guru, dan dia kemudian diizinkan untuk melakukan pelbagai latihan atau pemandangan" (169).

Mengenai Konsentrasi, Strasberg menggabungkannya dengan Emosi Memory, “Latihan konsentrasi fokus pada objek, di tempat, dan pada rasa sentuhan. Anda menumpukan perhatian

objek yang anda tahu dengan baik, memeriksa beratnya, bagaimana rasanya hangat di jari anda, rupa, apa yang anda lihat. Anda memberi perhatian kepada perkara yang anda ketahui dengan baik sehingga anda tidak perlu memikirkannya - bau, rasanya. Itu tumpuan pada realiti sederhana ”(Bartow 19). Latihan yang dilakukan oleh Strasberg untuk Konsentrasi semudah "mengendalikan objek khayalan melalui memori akal. [...] Untuk membuat semula minuman pagi - kopi atau jus oren - dengan cuba menangkap semula rangsangan deria rasa cawan atau gelas , bentuk dan beratnya, bau dan rasa […] ”(Garfield 169). Latihan ini menggunakan Sense Memory atau kemampuan untuk mengingat sensasi di sekitar peristiwa emosi. Ini sangat penting untuk karya Memori Emosi Strasberg. Tujuan kerja itu bukanlah untuk mengingati peristiwa emosi secara langsung tetapi untuk mengingat sensasi di sekitarnya. Mengingat itu adalah jalan masuk atau pencetus peristiwa emosional.

Pelakon itu dapat menambahkan Tindakan lain yang lebih kompleks untuk menangani objek khayalan. Seperti mencukur khayalan, menerapkan tata rias khayalan, “[mengalami] panas dan sejuk yang sangat tinggi [atau]“ sensasi keseluruhan, seperti sinar matahari, salji, atau mandi […] ”(170). Maksud kerja ini adalah untuk benar-benar mengalami objek atau aktiviti, bukan hanya untuk minum kopi tetapi juga merasakan panas dan merasakan rasanya. "Ingatan unsur sensori lemon [...] dapat memprovokasi air liur yang sebenarnya" (170).

Jenis latihan Konsentrasi ini berkaitan secara langsung dengan "kepekatan rohani" Boleslavsky di mana pelakon menumpukan perhatian pada "pengalaman deria masa lalu seperti mengendalikan objek peribadi (mis., Mainan kanak-kanak) atau memakai pakaian yang biasa [...]" (14). Latihan Konsentrasi ini, "mengembangkan bukan hanya konsentrasi pemain, tetapi juga kesadaran, kepekaan, imaginasi dan ekspresifnya" (170).

Strasberg menyatakan, "[Kami] tidak melakukan apa-apa pekerjaan emosional pada tahun pertama - kami hanya kembali menemui semula dan berhubung kembali dengan pancaindera" (Bartow 20). Semasa berhubung kembali dengan pancaindera, pelakon itu juga melakukan kerja-kerja adegan. Melakukan latihan Konsentrasi / Memori Rasa dan pemandangan yang menjadi pelakon adalah, "secara beransur-ansur belajar bagaimana mengintegrasikan kajian deria dengan persembahannya" (Garfield 170).

Strasberg menggunakan satu latihan langsung dari Boleslavsky dan Ouspenskaya yang disebut Latihan Gibberish, “dua orang memainkan pemandangan menggunakan suara omong kosong dan bukannya kata-kata. Ia dirancang untuk menyingkirkan pelakon dari penjelasan klise […] ”(171). Konsep lain diambil secara langsung dari pendapat Stanislavsky bahawa pelakon harus mempunyai Dual Consciousness, iaitu, semasa anda bertindak, anda menonton dan menilai prestasi anda sendiri (Stanislavsky, Perwatakan 21). Strasberg menyebutnya Kesedaran Ganda.

Latihan lain yang dikembangkan oleh Strasberg disebut Private Moment. Latihan ini menyebabkan banyak kritikan dilancarkan terhadap Strasberg. Garfield menerangkan bahawa kritikan dalam Tempat Pemain, "[Dari] semua inovasi Strasberg, mungkin tidak ada yang disalahpahami [...] sebagai" momen persendirian. " paparan skatologi, eksibisionis bermotif dan berpotensi berbahaya bagi pelakon sensitif ”(172). Strasberg membuat momen peribadi berdasarkan komen oleh Stanislavsky bahawa pelakon itu perlu "bersendirian di depan umum" (172).

Dalam latihan itu pelakon melakukan apa sahaja tindakan yang akan dia hentikan sekiranya seseorang masuk ke dalam bilik. Pelakon boleh membawa objek ke panggung yang membuatnya merasa bahawa dia berada di tempat persendirian. "Latihan ini akan memungkinkan mereka [para pelaku] untuk mengatasi penghambatan mereka dan memasuki bidang ekspresi yang sama sekali baru [...] latihan itu adalah alat yang sangat berguna dalam mengadakan momen-momen istimewa tertentu seperti kesendirian, monolog, dan kejadian lain ketika seseorang ditinggalkan sendirian di atas pentas ”(173).

Garfield memperincikan kritikan umum mengenai latihan Momen Swasta, "[Dengan] liberalisasi layar dan tahap panggung selama tahun tujuh puluhan […] ketelanjangan pada saat peribadi, yang tidak dapat ditoleransi sebelumnya diizinkan kadang-kadang, walaupun tidak pernah dalam suasana gementar atau sensasionalisme ”(174).

Akhirnya, Memori Afektif, seperti yang telah dinyatakan adalah tidak terpisahkan dengan Kaedah Strasberg. Memori Afektif ditakrifkan di bahagian Stanislavsky. Apa yang penting untuk diperhatikan dalam bahagian ini adalah bahawa Strasberg membuat Emosi Memory bukan hanya unsur Metodenya tetapi juga elemen utama. Seperti yang dinyatakan oleh Clurman di Tahun-Tahun Terhebat, “Sistem […] mewakili […] seni terbuka pelakon. Akhirnya ini adalah kunci kepada unsur panggung yang sukar difahami, iaitu emosi sejati. Dan Strasberg sangat fanatik mengenai masalah emosi yang sebenarnya. Segala-galanya adalah sekunder. […] Itu adalah wahyu di teater dan Strasberg adalah nabinya ”(44-45).

Jean Benedetti di Stanislavski: Pengenalan, memberikan kritikan untuk menjadikan Emosi Memory sebagai premis utama dalam teknik lakonan. Sebagai permulaan, dia mendapati kesalahan dengan Boleslavsky yang mengajar sistem Strasberg tetapi hanya kerana Boleslavsky tidak mengetahui tentang Kaedah Tindakan Fizikal. Dia menyatakan bahawa "pemaparan Sistem Boleslavsky adalah jelas dan koheren tetapi dia semestinya tidak menyedari fasa terakhir aktiviti Stanislavsky. […]" (98). Ini kerana Boleslavsky berhijrah ke Amerika setelah Stanislavsky mula mengajar Kaedah Kaedah fizikal.

Stella Adler, pada tahun 1934, setelah bertemu dengan Stanislavsky di Paris, memberitahu Strasberg mengenai Kaedah Kaedah Fizikal. Strasberg menolaknya. Hasilnya, Benedetti menyatakan, “Kaedah [Strasberg] cenderung menggantikan keadaan yang diberikan oleh biografi Pelakon, psikologi watak oleh keperibadian pelakon. Pelakon itu tidak menyusun semula elemen dirinya untuk mengungkapkan makna teks sehinggalah menarik teks dalam lingkungan pengalamannya sendiri ”(99).

Garfield di Tempat Pemain menawarkan pembelaan terhadap mereka yang menegaskan bahawa dengan membuat Kaedah Tindakan fizikal Stanislavski menolak Memori Afektif atau Emosi, "[Fenomena] memori emosi tidak pernah dicabar. Teori "final" Stanislavski hanya berpendapat bahawa tindakan fizikal yang dipilih dan dilaksanakan dengan betul akan secara tidak sedar akan berhubung dengan ingatan pelakon yang mempengaruhi dan melepaskan emosi yang sesuai dengan selamat jika diperlukan "(177).

Garfield juga mempersoalkan keberkesanan The Method of Physical Action. Dia menegaskan bahawa elemen ini sebagai wahyu baru setelah "sistem" tidak diuji sebagaimana "sistem" itu, "Stanislavski tidak pernah menguji Metode Aksi Fisik pada dirinya dalam produksi, seperti yang dilakukannya dengan prosedur sebelumnya" (178). Dia seterusnya menyatakan bahawa pengeluaran Tartuffe, di mana Stanislavsky menguji teori barunya, adalah kegagalan (178). Akhirnya, dia menyatakan bahawa Strasberg berpendapat "jika penerapan prosedur adalah ujian apa pun, reputasi yang hampir pasti dari Teater Seni Moscow, yang di bawah mantan pengarahnya, Kedrov, dijalankan dengan penekanan ekstrim dari" teknik akhir, "mungkin menunjukkan bahawa Kaedah Tindakan Fizikal adalah prosedur yang tidak sesuai dengan jangkaan ”(178).

Pemilikan: Sistem vs Kaedah

Dalam Impian Nafsu Strasberg merasa perlu untuk diperhatikan bahawa Metodenya adalah “kesinambungan dan penyatuan penemuan Stanislavsky dan Vakhtangov. […]” (175). Dia nampaknya menambahkan tanda bintang untuk pencapaian Stanislavsky. Tidak lama lagi saya akan mengkaji apa itu asterisk itu.

Ketika bukunya berakhir, Strasberg memberikan kritikan utamanya terhadap Stanislavsky, “karya Stanislavsky, yang ditafsirkan berdasarkan pencapaian Stanislavsky, nampaknya terbatas pada gaya realis. Bahkan usaha Stanislavsky dalam dunia gaya atau fantasi yang tinggi cenderung untuk menguatkan pendapat itu. Sebaliknya, penggunaan prosedur yang sama Vakhtangov yang sama gagah dan cemerlang diilhamkan oleh visi teater, yang disebutnya realisme hebat (175 - 176).

Strasberg kemudian menyebut Kumpulan Teater sebagai "dapat menerapkan prosedur latihan pelakonnya dan mencapai hasil teater yang berbeza - dalam kes kami, dalam drama yang terdiri dari realisme tiga puluhan baru hingga satira muzik tajam, seperti Johnny Johnson”(176). Pendapatnya adalah bahawa, seperti Vakhtangov yang mencipta 'realisme hebat', dia, Strasberg, telah mengatasi batasan "sistem" Stanislavsky, bahawa ketidakmampuan untuk melaksanakan drama dengan "gaya tinggi" atau "fantasi".

Dengan penegasan ini, Strasberg terlepas produksi dalam kanun Stanislavsky. Stanislavsky menghasilkan, atau seperti yang kita katakan hari ini, mengarahkan sebuah drama yang disebut Burung Biru. The Burung Biru adalah sebuah drama di mana "Stanislavsky sekali lagi menunjukkan betapa tak habis-habisnya khayalannya dalam penghasilan cerita dongeng" (Magarshack, Kehidupan 310). Penghasilan fantasi ini oleh Stanislavsky begitu berjaya sehingga pelakon terkenal Perancis, Gabrielle Rejane, “yang telah melihat produksi Stanislavsky dan yang ingin sekali membuat drama Maeterlinck di teater Parisnya menurut Stanislavsky’s mise-en-adegan ” (319). Seperti yang dinyatakan sebelumnya mise-en-adegan adalah rancangan lengkap pengarah untuk sebuah produksi, sehingga penyekat pelakon (Stanislavsky, Buku Panduan 98).

Foto pengeluaran dari Burung Biru menunjukkan pelakon berpakaian putih, dengan sosok bertopeng dua kali lebih tinggi daripada yang lain, menjulang secara tidak wajar di atas pelakon. Tokoh bertopeng itu mewakili Time. The caption describes the picture as representing, “Stanislavsky’s Symbolism in Maeterlincks’s The Blue Bird, 1908. The masked figure of ‘Time’ (Nikolai Znamensky) is surrounded by the ‘Souls of the Unborn.’ Notice the abstract costumes, sculptural grouping of figures and the absence of a set. This production was staged when Stanislavsky began to grapple with the principles of his System. The production ran continuously throughout the twentieth century, and over time became a fairy – tale for children […]” (Carnicke 116, Figure 9). So Stanislavsky, made famous by the Realist productions of Anton Chekov did not limit himself to just Realism. The long run of this play full of Symbolism, its appropriation by the French actress with its mise-en-scene intact and its elevation to an actual fairy tale for children, shows that Stanislavsky was indeed successful at non-realistic plays.

Despite Strasberg’s criticism of Stanislavsky, that he was unable to apply the “system” to anything but realism, it was Strasberg whose Method would receive this charge most strongly:

I think the present manifestation of the Method is admirable for certain kind of realistic plays, but I think the onus of the proof of Mr. Strasberg’s theory rests with him and that he and his disciples must produce professional productions of play from Shakespeare, Restoration Comedy, or, say, Giraudoux or almost any of the later French playwrights. (Garfield 180)

Tom Oppenheim in Training of the American Actor characterizes Strasberg’s position between Stanislavsky and the American actor by saying, “Lee Strasberg was the first American to interpret the Stanislavsky system and apply it to American actors in American plays […]” (Bartow 46). He also states, “Stella Adler was the first to diversify methodology” (46). Strasberg represented Stanislavsky’s ideas as presented by the MAT’s First Studio, Vakhtangov and then Boleslavsky (Garfield 167). Adler represented Stanislavsky’s ideas as he began to solidify his Method of Physical Action.

Now I will examine how Adler received and interpreted Stanislavsky’s ideas.


5 Basic Facts about Lee Strasberg


(Lee Strasberg as Hyman Roth in The Godfather II)

Lee Strasberg was one of the most influential acting teachers and acting theorists in history. Born Israel Lee Strasberg in Poland on November 17, 1901, Strasberg’s curiosity for the performing arts would lead him to develop his own method of acting. He would go on to lead and establish famous acting institutions and influence some of the most successful actors of all time, including actors like James Dean, Al Pacino and Marilyn Monroe.

Here are some basic facts about the life and career of Mr. Lee Strasberg:

#1: Strasberg is the Father of Method Acting

Though other teachers taught different forms of Method Acting, it is Strasberg who is considered the father of what most people in the United States understand Method Acting akan menjadi. Strasberg took Konstantin Stanislavski’s acting and preparation system, known as the “Stanislavski System” or simply “The System”, and built on it.

Interestingly, Strasberg was not aware of changes to the Stanislavski system that came later in Stanislavski’s teachings. Without a complete understanding of Stanislavski’s System, Strasberg focused much of his training on the inner workings of the actor.

#2: Strasberg Learned (Indirectly) From the Master, Konstantin Stanislavski

Like most modern acting teachers, Strasberg derived much of his teachings from the master himself, Konstanstin Stanislavski, who is widely considered the father of modern acting in the western world. Strasberg was inspired by Stanislavski after the Moscow Art Theatre toured the United States in 1923.

Strasberg never trained directly under Stanislavski. However, he did study under pupils of Stanislavski, particularly Maria Ouspenskaya and Richard Boleslavsky. These disciples of Stanislavski emigrated to the US to “spread the gospel”, so to speak. They set up an acting school, the American Laboratory Theatre, where they taught actors what they learned under Stanislavski. Strasberg was one of their students.

#3: Strasberg Emphasized Affective Memory

Affective Memory (also known as Emotional Recall or Emotion Recall), a technique Stanislavski disavowed, became the bedrock of Strasberg’s version of Method Acting. The technique calls on the actor to draw from the emotions of their past experiences and inject those emotions into similar circumstances experienced by their character.

“ The two areas of discovery that were of primary importance in my work at the Actors Studio and in my private classes were improvisation and affective memory. It is finally by using these techniques that the actor can express the appropriate emotions demanded of the character. "

(Lee Strasberg)

Affective memory stems from an early technique taught by Stanislavski. Stanislavski later abandoned the technique because he felt it induced a kind of hysteria in actors as they delved into long-buried, often painful memories, from their past. Stanislavski, therefore, believed the technique should only be used as a last resort for actors, when all other techniques failed to bring them to the emotional place they needed to be, in their character-building process.

#4: Lee Strasberg, Himself, Was an Accomplished Actor

Strasberg was not merely the most influential American acting teacher of the 20th century. He, himself, was also a respected actor. His acting career never flourished the way that it could have, in part, because he focused most of his time on training other actors, rather than becoming a working actor, himself.

But, when he wasn’t training actors on his brand of the Method, he managed to perform some highly significant cinematic roles. Strasberg played Hyman Roth in Godfather Bahagian II (1974). For his performance, he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Strasberg also received praise for his role of Grandpa Sam in …And Justice for All (1979).

#5: Strasberg Left Behind a Lasting Legacy

Strasberg left behind an indelible legacy on the craft of acting in the United States and around the world. He taught and inspired a who’s who of famous actors, including:

*James Dean
*Jane Fonda
*Paul Newman
*Ellen Burstyn
*Dustin Hoffman
*Julie Harris
*Marilyn Monroe
*Geraldine Page
*Montgomery Clift
*Al Pacino

“ I went to the Actors Studio and Lee Strasberg told me I had talent. Real talent. It was the first time that anyone, except my father – who had to say so – told me I was good. At anything. It was a turning point in my life. I went to bed thinking about acting. I woke up thinking about acting. It was like the roof had come off my life! "

(Jane Fonda)

He was also said to have been an early teacher of Marlon Brando, although this was later disputed by Brando.

Strasberg also founded, co-founded and directed some of the most important acting schools in the country:

Group Theater
Strasberg co-founded the Group Theatre, along with Harold Clurman and Cheryl Crawford, in 1931

Actors Studio
Strasberg became director of Actors Studio in New York, one of America’s most prestigious acting schools, in 1951

The Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute
In 1970, Strasberg established the Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute.


About the Group Theatre

In the summer of 1931, three young idealists, Harold Clurman, Cheryl Crawford and Lee Strasberg, were inspired by a passionate dream of transforming the American theater. They recruited 28 actors to form a permanent ensemble dedicated to dramatizing the life of their times. They conceived The Group Theatre as a response to what they saw as the old-fashioned light entertainment that dominated the theater of the late 1920’s. Their vision was of a new theater that would mount original American plays to mirror — even change — the life of their troubled times. Over its ten years and twenty productions, they not only met these goals, but altered the course of American theater forever.

The Group Theatre was a company based on an ensemble approach to acting. First seen in the work of the Moscow Art Theater, the ensemble approach proposed a highly personal and cooperative method. That individual actors played individual parts was no longer important. The focus was on a cast that was familiar and believable as a whole. If the actors had relationships off-stage, then the relationships on stage would not only seem, but be more “real.” As the members of the ensemble grew to know each other, this familiarity was successfully reflected in their work.

Based on the innovative techniques of the Russian master Constantin Stanislavsky, Lee Strasberg came up with “the method.” The method, or “method acting”, as it has come to be known, proposed a series of physical and psychological exercises. It held, for example, that if a part called for fear, the actor must remember fear and bring this honest emotion to the stage. These exercises were meant to break down the actor’s barrier between life on and off the stage. By the time the curtain came down on their first production, “The House of Connelly”, the Group Theater knew they had succeeded. What was important was not simply the enthusiastic response, but that the audience and reviewers had recognized that this one performance signaled a shift in American theater.

The Group Theatre believed what they were doing to be of great political significance. While disregarding the calls for individual fame in an embrace of cooperation. It was not, however, until Clifford Odets, then an actor in the group, wrote “Awake and Sing!” that they found their full voice. His highly charged plays, which were often expressed in the language and circumstances of working-class characters, mirrored the essence of what the group wanted to be and do, fulfilling the dream of a theater speaking to and for its audience. Both audience and critics responded enthusiastically, and such works as “Awake and Sing!,” “Waiting for Lefty, ” and “Paradise Lost” were among the most memorable productions of the decade.

By the late 1930’s however, the cohesiveness of the group began to crumble. The chronic financial problems and long-simmering disputes about “the method” began to chip away at their solidarity. An attempt to solve their financial problems that sent many of the actors to Hollywood (where some stayed) ended in the resignation of both Lee Strasberg and Cheryl Crawford. As a last resort, Harold Clurman decided to take on Hollywood stars in an attempt to enhance box office appeal. To many long-time members this seemed a compromise of the fundamental ideals of the group. Even the financial success of Clifford Odets’ “Golden Boy” in 1937 was not enough to halt the decline, and in 1941 the group dissolved.

Despite its relatively short life span, The Group Theatre has been called the bravest and single most significant experiment in the history of American theater, and its impact continues to be felt. Many of the group’s members went on to become leading acting teachers and directors, passing on to subsequent generations the spirit and principles that motivated them. Stella Adler, Lee Strasberg, Sanford Meisner, and Robert Lewis have counted among their students actors, directors, and playwrights such as Marlon Brando, James Dean, Paul Newman, Meryl Streep, Gregory Peck, and David Mamet. To this day institutions such as the Actors Studio, founded by Cheryl Crawford, Elia Kazan, and Robert Lewis continue the tradition of The Group Theatre.


Lee Strasberg

Lee Strasberg was born Israel Strasberg in Galicia, then part of Austria-Hungary, on November 17, 1901. He was brought to Manhattan's Lower East Side at age seven. Strasberg's father was a garment worker and was active in a trade union which supported community theater. It was in this Yiddish Theatre that Strasberg was first exposed to the naturalistic style of acting. While he was still a young boy he joined the amateur Progressive Dramatic Club, whose leaders were quite familiar with the theories of Constantine Stanislavsky, the great acting coach and director of the Moscow Art Theatre.

After leaving Townsend Harris High School in 1918 to work as a clerk in a wig factory, he studied acting at the American Laboratory Theatre under Richard Boleslavsky and Maria Ouspenskaya, both former students of Stanislavsky. He also gained his first experience as a director as a member of an amateur theatrical group that produced plays in the Christie Street Settlement House, a social center on the Lower East Side.

Strasberg's professional career in the theater began when he joined the Theatre Guild as an actor and assistant stage manager in 1924. It was at the Theatre Guild that Strasberg met Harold Clurman and Cheryl Crawford, two young Theatre Guild staffers who were dissatisfied with the commercial bent of the New York theater scene. Strasberg, Clurman, and Crawford began to meet informally with other similarly discontented young theater people, and eventually these informal meetings grew into rehearsals and workshops. In 1931 the Theatre Guild released the rights to Paul Green's The House of Connelly to the young idealists, and the Group Theatre was born on Broadway.

The Group Theatre was a unique establishment in the history of the American theater. Under the leadership of Strasberg, Clurman, and Crawford, the Group attempted to establish a company of actors, designers, directors, and playwrights who would create artistically notable works for the Broadway stage while maintaining social accountability. The Group Theatre's policies and practices fostered the talents of such notable names as Lee J. Cobb, Clifford Odets, and Elia Kazan (who started with the Group as an intern actor), among others. Strasberg blossomed as a director and acting coach with the Group, achieving his greatest success with Sidney Kingsley's Lelaki berbaju putih (1933), for which the author won the 1934 Pulitzer Prize. In his account of the Group Theatre, The Fervent Years (1957), Harold Clurman described Strasberg as "one of the few artists among American theatre directors. He is the director of introverted feeling, of strong emotion curbed by ascetic control…. The effect he produces is a classic hush, tense and tragic…. The roots are clearly in the intimate experience of a complex psychology, an acute awareness of human contradiction and suffering."

Strasberg left the Group in 1937 and pursued interests in Hollywood through most of the 1940s. He returned to Broadway to direct occasionally, achieving success with such works as Clifford Odets' Clash by Night (1941). He returned to New York to stay in 1948 to become the director and dominant force of the Actors Studio, an organization started by Kazan, Crawford, and Robert Lewis. The Studio was to be a workshop and training ground for actors, not a vehicle for public performance. Strasberg was the artistic director and guiding spirit of the Actors Studio for 34 years, from 1948 until his death in 1982, and his reputation as America's finest acting teacher spread worldwide by the 1970s, resulting in frequent invitations to lecture and teach in Europe. Strasberg's influence on American acting is undeniable and measurable. At his 75th birthday it was estimated that actors trained by him had received 24 Academy Awards and 108 nominations.

Strasberg's effectiveness as a teacher derived from his interest in the psychology of dramatic interpretation and from his emphasis on the actor's private personality as the raw material from which performance should be created. Combining the theories of Stanislavsky and some modern psychology, he urged his students to create "backlife" for their characters, previous and subsequent histories based on assumptions from facts in the script. The areas examined were from the most tragic (such as loss of a parent) to the most mundane (such as brushing one's teeth). The object of this training was to break down the artificiality of acting by instilling in the actor such a familiarity with the character that the role ceased to be distinct from the actor's self. In this way, the personality of the performer became a functional part of stage technique.

Strasberg was married three times: to Nora Z. Krecaun in 1926 (she died in 1929), to Paula Miller in 1934 (who died in 1966), and to Anna Mizrahi in 1968. He had four children: two by Miller (Susan—an actress—and John) and two by Mizrahi (Adam and David). Strasberg's career as a stage actor ended in 1929 with his retirement, and his career as a film actor began in 1974 with his role as Hyman Roth in The Godfather, Part II, for which he received an Academy Award nomination for best supporting actor in 1975. His other film appearances included The Cassandra Crossing (1976), Boardwalk (1979), Going in Style (1979), and And Justice for All (1980). His television appearances included roles in The Last Tenant (1981) and Skokie (1981).

Strasberg died of a heart attack on February 17, 1982, in New York City, several days after appearing in a benefit chorus line at Radio City Music Hall.


Acting Styles: Lee Strasberg's Method

Lee Strasberg (1901-1982), actor, director, and teacher, has been called the “Father of method acting in America.” His technique is based upon a system created by Konstantin Stanislavski, where actors strive for a realistic performance by utilizing their “emotional memories.”

Strasberg, through his work at the Actors Studio and the Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute, taught his method to many A-list actors and actresses, including Al Pacino, Dustin Hoffman, James Dean, and Marilyn Monroe. And many other top performers who have not studied under Strasberg also use his method style of acting, such as Angelina Jolie, Scarlett Johansson, Sylvester Stallone, and Jack Nicholson.

While method acting is similar to Stanislavski’s system, Strasberg took the idea a step further. Strasberg’s method requires actors to go beyond emotional memory and use a technique called “Substitution” to temporarily become the characters they are portraying.

Method acting focuses on achieving realism, differing from classical acting styles, which have traditionally featured exaggerated emotions much bigger than life. According to the Lee Strasberg Theatre & Film Institute website, method actors “…use their imagination, senses and emotions to conceive of characters with unique and original behavior, creating performances grounded in the human truth of the moment.”

Strasberg identified what he saw as limitations to Stanislavski’s system, in that actors’ emotional memories were insufficient to fully connect to the circumstances experienced by the characters they were portraying. How could an actor who grew up in a middle-class family and lived in New York City truly understand what life was like for a character who lived in poverty in a rural southern town?

Method acting dictates that actors should prepare for a role by immersing themselves as much as possible in the circumstances of their characters. This can include living on a farm, working in a factory, or transforming their bodies. Method acting has come under scrutiny because it is believed that some actors go so far to replicate the lives of their characters, that they actually put their health or lives at risk. In addition, many stories have been told of actors who played their roles to extremes, refusing to step outside of their roles, even when the cameras were not rolling.

Some famous examples of actors going to great lengths to understand their characters include:

* Actor Daniel Day-Lewis’s affinity for method acting is legendary. In one film, My Left Foot, Day-Lewis spent eight weeks in a clinic for cerebral palsy patients to prepare for a role as a disabled artist. On the set, he used a wheelchair, was physically carried around between scenes, and he was spoon-fed off-camera to help him better identify with his role.

* To portray a character who was emaciated in Roman Polanski’s The Pianist, Adrien Brody shed 30 pounds in six weeks. About his starvation diet, he said: "I couldn't have acted that without knowing it. I've experienced loss, I've experienced sadness in my life, but I didn't know the desperation that comes with hunger."

* To prepare for his role as The Joker in Kesatria gelap, Heath Ledger was said to have shut himself in a London hotel room for a month before filming. And during production, he refused to step out of character, ignoring anyone who tried to talk to him outside the role. Ledger died from a drug overdose after the movie was shot.

* Actress Tippi Hedrin, in preparation for her role in Alfred Hitchcock’s Burung, endured stagehands throwing live birds at her face, which left her injured and terrified. This was reportedly Hitchcock’s idea, and not Hedrin’s.

* Dustin Hoffman, in order to more accurately portray his sleep-deprived character, Babe Levy, in Marathon Man, reportedly stayed awake for days prior to filming. Allegedly, this prompted his co-star, Lawrence Olivier, to say something along the lines of: “Why not try acting? It’s much easier.”

The list of film stars who use Strasberg’s method acting style has continued to grow over the decades. They claim that this type of preparation helps them deliver exceptional performances. And they have the Oscars to prove it!

To learn more about Lee Strasberg’s Method, read his book, A Dream of Passion: The Development of the Method.


Lee Strasberg - History

Lee Strasberg, father of &apos&aposMethod acting&apos&apos in America, artistic director of the Actors Studio, stage director, film actor and a major figure in world theater, died of a heart attack yesterday. He was 80 years old.

Mr. Strasberg, as a master teacher, guided several generations of actors, including Marlon Brando, James Dean, Marilyn Monroe, Al Pacino and Robert De Niro. He revolutionized the art of acting and had a profound influence on performance in American theater and movies.

The Method, a system of vocal, physical and emotional exercises, was initiated in Russia by Constantin Stanislavsky it encouraged the actor to use his psyche and subconscious in preparing for a role. Mr. Strasberg adapted it to the American theater, imposing his refinements, but always crediting Stanislavsky as his source.

Elected to Hall of Fame

At 6:30 A.M. yesterday in his Central Park West apartment, Mr. Strasberg had chest pains and, in an ambulance on the way to Roosevelt Hospital, suffered cardiac arrest. By the time he arrived at the hospital, there were no vital signs and, according to a spokesman, John Springer, at 7:56 he was pronounced dead.

With him at his death were his wife, Anna, and their two sons, Adam, 12, and David, 11. Immediately after, Mr. Pacino arrived, followed by Mr. Strasberg&aposs older offspring from a previous marriage, his son, John, and his daughter, Susan - and Ellen Burstyn, the actress.

On Tuesday, Mr. Strasberg was officially notified that he had been elected to the Theatrical Hall of Fame. His last public appearance was Sunday night at the &apos&aposNight of 100 Stars&apos&apos in the Radio City Music Hall, a benefit for the Actors Fund. Along with Mr. Pacino and Mr. De Niro, his co-stars in &apos&aposGodfather II,&apos&apos and many others, he danced in the chorus line with the Rockettes.

Oscar Nominee in 1974

Ironically, he made his earliest professional appearances as an actor in the mid-1920&aposs, singing and dancing in theatricals such as the &apos&aposGarrick Gaieties.&apos&apos

He soon moved from acting to directing and teaching, but in 1974 returned to acting and made his film debut in &apos&aposGodfather II,&apos&apos a role for which he received an Academy Award nomination for supporting actor. He subsequently performed in other films, including &apos&aposThe Cassandra Crossing,&apos&apos &apos&aposBoardwalk,&apos&apos &apos&aposAnd Justice for All,&apos&apos in which he played Mr. Pacino&aposs father, and &apos&aposGoing in Style.&apos&apos

Despite his late-blooming acting career and his earlier work as a stage director, he remained primarily a teacher of acting, in private classes as well as at the Actors Studio. His pupils were also his disciples. To many of them, he was a principal motivating force in their choice of career. As Jane Fonda said at his death, &apos&aposI&aposm not sure I even would have become an actress were it not for him. He will be missed, but he leaves behind a great legacy.&apos&apos

Joined Chrystie Street Group

Born Israel Strassberg on Nov. 17, 1901, in Budzanow, Poland, now part of the Soviet Union, he was the son of a provincial innkeeper. At the age of 7, he emigrated with his family to the United States, where his father worked in the garment industry. Growing up on the Lower East Side, he attended the theater whenever possible and joined the Chrystie Street Settlement&aposs drama group as an actor.

It was at that time that he changed his name to I. Lee Strasberg, subsquently dropping the initial. He worked as a wigmaker studied improvisational acting techniques with Richard Boleslavsky, a student of Stanislavsky, and began working as an actor. He made his professional debut in &apos&aposProcessional,&apos&apos produced by the Theatre Guild in 1925, and was also assistant stage manager for the Lunts in &apos&aposThe Guardsman.&apos&apos

Working for the guild, he met, among others, Harold Clurman. In his book &apos&aposThe Fervent Years,&apos&apos Mr. Clurman recalled his first impression of Mr. Strasberg on stage in a play by Pirandello, &apos&aposas a young, pale-faced man of intellectual demeanor.&apos&apos Meeting him, Mr. Clurman said, &apos&aposwe were drawn together by our common dissatisfactions, our still unshaped ideals.&apos&apos

In Search of a Responsive Theater

Those ideals took shape with the formation of the Group Theater, founded in 1931 by Mr. Clurman, Mr. Strasberg and Cheryl Crawford. It was a pivotal moment in the growth of American performing arts, bringing together actors, directors and writers in search of a theater that would be responsive to society.

Their production was Paul Green&aposs &apos&aposThe House of Connelly,&apos&apos directed by Mr. Strasberg. As Mr. Clurman said: &apos&aposLee Strasberg is one of the few artists among American theater directors. He is the director of introverted feeling, of strong emotion curbed by ascetic control, sentiment of great intensity muted by delicacy, pride, fear, shame. The effect he produces is a classic hush, tense and tragic, a constant conflict so held in check that a kind of beautiful spareness results. The roots are clearly in the intimate experience of a complex psychology, an acute awareness of human contradiction and suffering.&apos&apos

Climax of Character&aposs Existence

Mr. Clurman&aposs description of his friend as director bears a direct relationship to Mr. Strasberg&aposs subsequent work at the Actors Studio. The Method requires that an actor in preparing for a role delve not only into the character&aposs life in the play, but also, far more importantly, into the character&aposs life before the curtain rises. In rehearsal, the character&aposs prehistory, perhaps going back to childhood, is discussed and even acted out. The play became the climax of the character&aposs existence.

Mr. Brando based his acting technique on the Method. &apos&aposIt made me a real actor,&apos&apos he once said. &apos&aposThe idea is you learn to use everything that happened in your life and you learn to use it in creating the character you&aposre working on. You learn to dig into your unconscious and make use of every experience you ever had.&apos&apos

Kim Stanley, explaining what she learned at the studio, has said: &apos&aposLee tries to make you find things in yourself that you can use. In this respect, it&aposs not unakin to analysis. The times I most fulfilled myself were the times I remembered what Lee told us in class - to do the work &aposmoment by moment,&apos to allow yourself to look and listen.&apos&apos

Controversial Teachings

Throughout Mr. Strasberg&aposs career, his teachings were controversial. Opponents of the Method believe that it encourages actors to be self-indulgent, to forget the character in pursuit of behavorial motivation, and that it does not prepare actors to play classics. Stereotypically, opponents contend, the Method actor is mannered to the point of unintelligibility.

On the other hand, Tennessee Williams, whose plays have been populated by graduates of the studio, has said studio actors had a more intense and honest style of acting. &apos&aposThey act from the inside out,&apos&apos he said. &apos&aposThey communicate emotions they really feel. They give you a sense of life.&apos&apos

Mr. Strasberg was not a founder of the studio it was created in 1947 by Elia Kazan, Mr. Crawford and Robert Lewis. But in a year, Mr. Srasberg had joined the three, associates from the now defunct Group Theater, and he soon became the guiding force. He remained synonomous with its work for the rest of his life.

&apos&aposAt the studio, we do not sit around and feed each other&aposs egos,&apos&apos Mr. Strasberg once said. &apos&aposPeople are shocked how severe we are on each other. Duse, probably the greatest I&aposve ever seen, was capable of better. If she came to the studio, we would pull her apart.&apos&apos

The first role of the studio, he said, was to perceive talent before it was fully trained. Among the many actors who have worked at the studio are Julie Harris, Paul Newman, Joanne Woodward, Geraldine Page, Maureen Stapleton, Anne Bancroft, Dustin Hoffman, Patricia Neal, Rod Steiger, Mildred Dunnock, Eva Marie Saint, Eli Wallach, Anne Jackson, Ben Gazzara, Sidney Poitier, Karl Malden, Shelley Winters and Sally Field.

A number of plays were developed there, including &apos&aposA Hatful of Rain,&apos&apos &apos&aposEnd as a Man,&apos&apos &apos&aposAny Wednesday,&apos&apos &apos&aposThe Night of the Iguana,&apos&apos &apos&aposThe Zoo Story&apos&apos and &apos&aposThe Death of Bessie Smith.&apos&apos

A major reversal for Mr. Strasberg occurred in 1961, when the studio was not invited to become the resident theatrical company at Lincoln Center. Mr. Kazan, his former associate, was selected to head the initial company.

Broadway Season in 1963

To demonstrate its ability as a production unit, in 1963 the studio presented a season of plays on Broadway, including &apos&aposStrange Interlude&apos&apos and &apos&aposThe Three Sisters,&apos&apos productions that generally disappointed the critics. From that time, most plays were performed as in-house projects in the studio&aposs home at 432 West 44th Street. Mr. Strasberg retained his hope that the studio could become the basis for a national theater.

He retired as an actor in 1929, returning to the stage briefly in 1936 to perform in a one-act play by Clifford Odets. However, he was famous for performing in class.

At the suggestion of Mr. Pacino, he resumed his professional acting career in &apos&aposGodfather II.&apos&apos He divided his later years between acting in films and teaching. He made his final appearance as an actor in November in the television film &apos&aposSkokie.&apos&apos He also found time to finish his autobiography. He married three times, to Nora Z. Krecaun and Paula Miller, both of whom died, and Anna Mizrahi. He is survived by his third wife and his four children.

In an 80th birthday interview, he said that he was looking forward to his next 20 years in the theater. According to friends, he was healthy until the day he died.

&apos&aposIt was so unexpected,&apos&apos Mr. Pacino said. &apos&aposWhat stood out was how youthful he was. He never seemed as old as his years. He was an inspiration.&apos&apos


Tonton videonya: Creative Method: Lee Strasberg on Acting (Julai 2022).


Komen:

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  2. Bradwell

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  3. Shaktigore

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